Heliopolis (ancient Egypt)

Heliopolis
Obelisk-SesostrisI-Heliopolis.JPG
The Al-Masalla obelisk, the largest surviving monument from Heliopolis
Heliopolis (ancient Egypt) is located in Egypt
Heliopolis (ancient Egypt)
Shown within Egypt
LocationEgypt
RegionCairo Governorate
Coordinates30°07′46″N 31°18′27″E / 30°07′46″N 31°18′27″E / 30.129333; 31.307528

Heliopolis was a major city of ancient Egypt. It was the capital of the 13th or Heliopolite Nome of Lower Egypt and a major religious center. It is now located in Ayn Shams, a northeastern suburb of Cairo.

Heliopolis was one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, occupied since the Predynastic Period.[1] It greatly expanded under the Old and Middle Kingdoms but is today mostly destroyed, its temples and other buildings having been scavenged for the construction of medieval Cairo. Most information about the ancient city comes from surviving records.

The major surviving remnant of Heliopolis is the obelisk of the Temple of Ra-Atum erected by Senusret I of Dynasty XII. It still stands in its original position, now within Al-Masalla in Al-Matariyyah, Cairo.[2] The 21 m (69 ft) high red granite obelisk weighs 120 tons (240,000 lbs).

Names

iwn nw
O49
[a]
Hieropolis
I͗wnw
in hieroglyphs

Heliopolis is the latinized form of the Ptolemaic Greek name Hēlioúpolis (Ἡλιούπολις), meaning "City of the Sun". Helios, the personified and deified form of the sun, was identified by the Greeks with the native Egyptian gods Ra and Atum, whose principal cult was located in the city.

Its native name was I͗wnw ("The Pillars"), whose exact pronunciation is uncertain because ancient Egyptian recorded only consonantal values. Its traditional Egyptological transcription is Iunu but it appears in biblical Hebrew as Ôn (אן‬) and Āwen (און‬), leading some scholars to reconstruct its pronunciation as *Āwanu. Variant transcriptions include Awnu and Annu.

The city also appears in the Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts as the "House of Ra".[4]

Other Languages
العربية: أون
čeština: Iunu
dansk: Iunu
Deutsch: Heliopolis
Ελληνικά: Ηλιούπολις
español: Heliópolis
Esperanto: Heliopolo
euskara: Heliopolis
فارسی: هلیوپلیس
galego: Heliópolis
hrvatski: Heliopolis
Bahasa Indonesia: Heliopolis (Mesir kuno)
íslenska: Helíópólis
italiano: Eliopoli
עברית: און
ქართული: ჰელიოპოლისი
lietuvių: Heliopolis
magyar: Héliopolisz
norsk: Heliopolis
occitan: Iono
Simple English: Heliopolis (ancient)
slovenčina: Iunu
slovenščina: Heliopolis
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Heliopolis (drevni)
suomi: Heliopolis
Tagalog: Heliopolis
Türkçe: Heliopolis
українська: Геліополь (Єгипет)
اردو: عين شمس