Handgun

.44 Magnum revolver and bullet, photographed with an air-gap flash.

A handgun is a firearm designed to be handheld, in either one or both hands. This characteristic differentiates handguns as a general class of firearms from long guns such as rifles and shotguns (which usually can be braced against the shoulder).

Major handgun subtypes are the revolver and pistol (including single-shot pistols, semi-automatic pistols, and machine pistols); other subtypes include derringers and pepperboxes.

The words "pistol" and "handgun" have overlapping variations, in meaning.

Although handgun use often includes bracing with a second hand, the essential distinguishing characteristic of a handgun is its facility for one-handed operation.

Nomenclature variations

Multiple senses of the word "pistol"

SIG Pro semi-automatic pistol

The word "pistol" is often synonymous with the word "handgun". Some handgun experts make a technical distinction that views pistols as a subset of handguns. In American usage, the term "pistol" refers to a handgun having one chamber integral with the barrel, making pistols distinct from the other main type of handgun, the revolver, which has a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers. But UK/Commonwealth usage often does not make this distinction. For example, the official designation of the Webley Mk VI was "Pistol, Revolver, Webley No. 1 Mk VI", and the designation "Pistol No. 2 Mk I" was used to refer to both the Enfield Revolver and the later Browning Hi-Power semi-automatic. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Handheld firearms first appeared in China where gunpowder was first developed. They were hand cannons (although they were not necessarily fired from the hand, but rather at the end of a handle). By the 14th century, they existed in Europe as well. The first handheld firearms that might better be called "pistols" were made as early as the 15th century, but their creator is unknown. [5] By the 18th century, the term came to be used often to refer to handheld firearms. Practical revolver designs appeared in the 19th century, but it was not until the mid-twentieth century that the (sometimes-observed) differentiation in usage of the words "pistol" and "revolver" evolved among some speakers and the use of "handgun" became prevalent. Previously there had been no such differentiation, and in fact Samuel Colt's original patent was for a "revolving-breech pistol". There is no literal equivalent for "handgun" in the Romance languages, which continue to use cognates of the word "pistol".

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Handgeweer
አማርኛ: ሽጉጥ
العربية: سلاح يدوي
Cymraeg: Llawddryll
Deutsch: Kurzwaffe
فارسی: تفنگ دستی
français: Arme de poing
贛語: 手槍
한국어: 권총
हिन्दी: हैंडगन
Nederlands: Handvuurwapen
日本語: 拳銃
slovenščina: Kratkocevno orožje
粵語: 手槍
中文: 手枪