Han dynasty

Han dynasty
漢朝
202 BC–9 AD;
25 AD–220 AD
A map of the Western Han Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light blue area shows the extent of the Tarim Basin protectorate of the Western Regions.[1]
A map of the Western Han Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light blue area shows the extent of the Tarim Basin protectorate of the Western Regions.[1]
CapitalChang'an
(206 BC–9 AD, 190–195 AD)

Luoyang
(23–190 AD, 196 AD)

Xuchang
(196–220 AD)
Common languagesOld Chinese
Religion Taoism
Chinese folk religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 202–195 BC (first)
Emperor Gaozu
• 141-87 BC
Emperor Wu
• 25–57 AD
Emperor Guangwu
• 189-220 AD (last)
Emperor Xian
Chancellor 
• 206–193 BC
Xiao He
• 193–190 BC
Cao Can
• 189–192 AD
Dong Zhuo
• 208–220 AD
Cao Cao
• 220 AD
Cao Pi
Historical era202 BCE
• Xiang Yu appointed Liu Bang as King of Han
206 BC
• Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China began
202 BC
9 AD–23 AD
• Abdication to Cao Wei
220 AD
Area
50 BC est. (Western Han peak)[2]6,000,000 km2 (2,300,000 sq mi)
100 AD est. (Eastern Han peak)[2]6,500,000 km2 (2,500,000 sq mi)
Population
• 2 AD[3]
57,671,400
CurrencyBan Liang coins and Wu Zhu coins
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Qin dynasty
Western Chu
Cao Wei
Shu Han
Eastern Wu
Today part of China
 Mongolia
 North Korea
 Vietnam
Han dynasty
Han (Chinese characters).svg
"Han" in ancient seal script (top left), Han-era clerical script (top right), modern Traditional (bottom left), and Simplified (bottom right) Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese漢朝
Simplified Chinese汉朝
History of China
History of China
ANCIENT
Neolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BC
Xia dynasty c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC
Shang dynasty c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC
Zhou dynasty c. 1046 – 256 BC
 Western Zhou
 Eastern Zhou
   Spring and Autumn
   Warring States
IMPERIAL
Qin dynasty 221–206 BC
Han dynasty 206 BC – 220 AD
  Western Han
  Xin dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu and Wu
Jin dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern JinSixteen Kingdoms
Northern and Southern dynasties
420–589
Sui dynasty 581–618
Tang dynasty 618–907
  (Second Zhou dynasty 690–705)
Five Dynasties and
Ten Kingdoms

907–960
Liao dynasty
907–1125
Song dynasty
960–1279
  Northern SongWestern Xia
  Southern SongJin
Yuan dynasty 1271–1368
Ming dynasty 1368–1644
Qing dynasty 1644–1912
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic of China 1949–present

The Han dynasty (n/;[4] Chinese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàn cháo) was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history.[5] To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters".[6] It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD).

The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD.

The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum.

The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation,[7] defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

Etymology

According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after the collapse of the Qin dynasty the hegemon Xiang Yu appointed Liu Bang as prince of the small fief of Hanzhong, named after its location on the Han River (in modern southwest Shaanxi). Following Liu Bang's victory in the Chu–Han Contention, the resulting Han dynasty was named after the Hanzhong fief.[8]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Han-dinastie
Alemannisch: Han-Dynastie
aragonés: Dinastía Han
অসমীয়া: হান ৰাজবংশ
asturianu: Dinastía Han
azərbaycanca: Han sülaləsi
Bân-lâm-gú: Hàn
башҡортса: Хань (династия)
беларуская: Дынастыя Хань
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дынастыя Хань
български: Хан (династия)
bosanski: Dinastija Han
brezhoneg: Tierniezh Han
буряад: Хань улас
català: Dinastia Han
Чӑвашла: Хань (ăру)
čeština: Dynastie Chan
Deutsch: Han-Dynastie
Ελληνικά: Δυναστεία Χαν
español: Dinastía Han
Esperanto: Dinastio Han
euskara: Han dinastia
Fiji Hindi: Han Samrajya
føroyskt: Han-ríkið
français: Dynastie Han
贛語:
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hon-chhèu
한국어: 한나라
հայերեն: Հան դինաստիա
हिन्दी: हान राजवंश
hrvatski: Dinastija Han
Bahasa Indonesia: Dinasti Han
íslenska: Hanveldið
italiano: Dinastia Han
עברית: שושלת האן
Basa Jawa: Wangsa Han
Kiswahili: Nasaba ya Han
Latina: Domus Han
latviešu: Haņu dinastija
lietuvių: Hanų dinastija
македонски: Хан (династија)
مصرى: عيلة خان
Bahasa Melayu: Dinasti Han
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Háng-dièu
монгол: Хань улс
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟန်မင်းဆက်
Nederlands: Han-dynastie
नेपाली: हान राजवंश
नेपाल भाषा: हान राजवंश
日本語:
norsk nynorsk: Han-dynastiet
occitan: Dinastia Han
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xan (sulola)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਾਨ ਰਾਜਕਾਲ
پنجابی: ہان سلطنت
ភាសាខ្មែរ: រាជវង្សហាន
polski: Dynastia Han
português: Dinastia Han
română: Dinastia Han
русиньскый: Дінастія Ган
русский: Империя Хань
Simple English: Han dynasty
slovenščina: Dinastija Han
српски / srpski: Династија Хан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dinastija Han
svenska: Handynastin
татарча/tatarça: Хань чоры
Türkçe: Han Hanedanı
Türkmençe: Han dinastiýasy
українська: Династія Хань
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: خەن سۇلالىسى
Vahcuengh: Hanciuz
Tiếng Việt: Nhà Hán
文言:
Winaray: Dinastiya Han
吴语: 汉朝
粵語:
中文: 汉朝