Hamburg

Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg
State of Germany
View of the Binnenalster
St. Michael's Church St. Nicholas' Church
Speicherstadt Hamburg Rathaus
Flag of Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Flag
Coat of arms of Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Coat of arms
Deutschland Lage von Hamburg.svg
Coordinates: 53°33′55″N 10°00′05″E / 53°33′55″N 10°00′05″E / 53.56528; 10.00139
Country Germany
Government
 • Body Bürgerschaft of Hamburg
 •  First Mayor Olaf Scholz ( SPD)
 • Governing parties SPD / The Greens
 •  Bundesrat votes 3 (of 69)
Area
 • City 755 km2 (292 sq mi)
Population (30 September 2016) [1]
 • City 1,805,316
 • Density 2,400/km2 (6,200/sq mi)
 •  Metro 5,107,429
Demonym(s) Hamburger [2]
Time zone CET ( UTC+1)
 • Summer ( DST) CEST ( UTC+2)
Postal code(s) 20001–21149, 22001–22769
Area code(s) 040
ISO 3166 code DE-HH
Vehicle registration
  • HH (1906–1945; again since 1956)
  • MGH (1945)
  • H (1945–1947)
  • HG (1947)
  • BH (1948–1956)
GDP/ Nominal €111/$130 billion (2016) [3]
GDP per capita €62,000/$72,900 [4] (2015)
NUTS Region DE6
Website hamburg.de
Official logo of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Hamburg, seen from the International Space Station

Hamburg (German pronunciation: [ˈhambʊɐ̯k] ( About this sound  listen), local pronunciation: [ˈhambʊɪ̯ç] ( About this sound  listen); Low German/ Low Saxon: Hamborg —  [ˈhambɔːç] ( About this sound  listen)), [a] officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg ( German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg), [5] is the second largest city and a state of Germany, [6] with a population of over 1.8 million people.

The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state, and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg, the floods, and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids, the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe.

On the river Elbe, Hamburg is a major port [7] and a global service, media, logistics and industrial hub, with headquarters and facilities of Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis, Beiersdorf, and Unilever. The radio and television broadcaster NDR, Gruner + Jahr (Europe's largest printing and publishing firm), Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are also based in Hamburg. Hamburg has been an important financial centre for centuries and is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's second oldest bank, Berenberg Bank. With the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, many consular and diplomatic missions, and various international conferences like Hamburg Summit: China meets Europe and the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit, the city is also a factor in world politics and international law.

The city is a tourist destination for both domestic and international visitors, ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. [8] Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2015. [9]

Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutes. Its creative industries and cultural sites include the Elbphilharmonie and Laeisz concert halls, art venues, music producers, and artists. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best known European entertainment districts.

Geography

Hamburg is on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the north-east. It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and Außenalster ("Outer Alster"), both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn and Nigehörn, 100 kilometres (60 mi) away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of the city of Hamburg. [10]

The neighbourhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land (old land) region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres (381 ft) AMSL. [11] Hamburg borders the states of Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony.

Climate

Hamburg has an oceanic climate (Cfb), influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. Nearby wetlands also enjoy a maritime temperate climate. The amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at times heavy snowfall occurred, [12] the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year. [13] [14]

The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C (68.2 to 72.5 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C (31.5 to 33.8 °F). [15]

Climate data for Hamburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
17.2
(63)
23.0
(73.4)
29.7
(85.5)
33.5
(92.3)
34.6
(94.3)
36.9
(98.4)
37.3
(99.1)
32.3
(90.1)
26.1
(79)
20.2
(68.4)
15.7
(60.3)
37.3
(99.1)
Average high °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
4.4
(39.9)
8.0
(46.4)
12.3
(54.1)
17.5
(63.5)
19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
22.2
(72)
17.9
(64.2)
13.0
(55.4)
7.5
(45.5)
4.6
(40.3)
13.2
(55.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
1.6
(34.9)
4.6
(40.3)
7.8
(46)
12.5
(54.5)
15.2
(59.4)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
13.7
(56.7)
9.5
(49.1)
4.9
(40.8)
2.3
(36.1)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
1.1
(34)
3.3
(37.9)
7.4
(45.3)
10.5
(50.9)
12.7
(54.9)
12.5
(54.5)
9.6
(49.3)
6.0
(42.8)
2.4
(36.3)
0.0
(32)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −22.8
(−9)
−29.1
(−20.4)
−15.3
(4.5)
−7.1
(19.2)
−5.0
(23)
0.6
(33.1)
3.4
(38.1)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
−7.1
(19.2)
−15.4
(4.3)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−29.1
(−20.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 67.8
(2.669)
49.9
(1.965)
67.7
(2.665)
43.0
(1.693)
57.4
(2.26)
78.6
(3.094)
76.7
(3.02)
78.9
(3.106)
67.4
(2.654)
67.0
(2.638)
69.2
(2.724)
68.9
(2.713)
792.6
(31.205)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.1 9.2 11.3 8.9 9.6 11.3 11.4 10.2 10.8 10.5 11.7 12.4 129.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.9 69.0 108.8 171.6 223.4 198.7 217.5 203.1 144.6 107.9 53.0 37.4 1,581.9
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation ( UN) [15]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst [16]
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hamburg
Akan: Hamburg
Alemannisch: Hamburg
አማርኛ: ሃምቡርግ
Ænglisc: Hamburg
العربية: هامبورغ
aragonés: Hamburgo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܗܐܡܒܘܪܓ
asturianu: Hamburgu
Avañe'ẽ: Hamburgo
Aymar aru: Hamburg
azərbaycanca: Hamburq
تۆرکجه: هامبورق
বাংলা: হামবুর্গ
Bân-lâm-gú: Hamburg
беларуская: Гамбург
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гамбург
भोजपुरी: हैम्बर्ग
български: Хамбург
Boarisch: Hamburg
bosanski: Hamburg
brezhoneg: Hamburg
буряад: Һамбург
català: Hamburg
Чӑвашла: Гамбург
čeština: Hamburk
Chamoru: Hamburg
chiTumbuka: Hamburg
Cymraeg: Hamburg
dansk: Hamborg
davvisámegiella: Hamborg
Deitsch: Hamburg
Deutsch: Hamburg
dolnoserbski: Hamburg
eesti: Hamburg
Ελληνικά: Αμβούργο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ambûrg
эрзянь: Гамбург ош
español: Hamburgo
Esperanto: Hamburgo
estremeñu: Amburgu
euskara: Hanburgo
فارسی: هامبورگ
føroyskt: Hamburg
français: Hambourg
Frysk: Hamburch
furlan: Amburc
Gaeilge: Hamburg
Gaelg: Hamburg
Gàidhlig: Hamburg
galego: Hamburgo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hamburg
한국어: 함부르크
Hawaiʻi: Hamepuka
Հայերեն: Համբուրգ
हिन्दी: हैम्बर्ग
hornjoserbsce: Hamburg
hrvatski: Hamburg
Ido: Hamburg
Ilokano: Hamburg
Bahasa Indonesia: Hamburg
interlingua: Hamburgo
Interlingue: Hamburg
Ирон: Гамбург
isiXhosa: Hamburg
íslenska: Hamborg
italiano: Amburgo
עברית: המבורג
Basa Jawa: Hamburg
Kapampangan: Hamburg
ქართული: ჰამბურგი
kaszëbsczi: Hambùrg
қазақша: Гамбург
kernowek: Hamburg
Kiswahili: Hamburg
Kongo: Hamburg
Kurdî: Hamburg
Кыргызча: Гамбург
кырык мары: Гамбург
Ladino: Hamburgo
Latina: Hamburgum
latviešu: Hamburga
Lëtzebuergesch: Hamburg
lietuvių: Hamburgas
Ligure: Ambûrgo
Limburgs: Hamburg
lumbaart: Amburgh
magyar: Hamburg
македонски: Хамбург
മലയാളം: ഹാംബർഗ്
Malti: Amburgu
मराठी: हांबुर्ग
მარგალური: ჰამბურგი
مصرى: هامبورج
Bahasa Melayu: Hamburg
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hamburg
монгол: Хамбург
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟမ်းဗတ်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Hamburg
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Hamburg
Nederlands: Hamburg
Nedersaksies: Hambörg
नेपाली: ह्याम्बर्ग
नेपाल भाषा: ह्याम्बर्ग
日本語: ハンブルク
нохчийн: Гамбург
Nordfriisk: Hambörj
Norfuk / Pitkern: Hamburg
norsk: Hamburg
norsk nynorsk: Hamburg
Novial: Hamburg
occitan: Amborg
олык марий: Гамбург
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gamburg
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਾਮਬੁਰਕ
Pälzisch: Hamburg
پنجابی: ہامبرگ
Papiamentu: Hamburg
Picard: Hambourq
Piemontèis: Amborgh
Plattdüütsch: Hamborg
polski: Hamburg
português: Hamburgo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Gamburg
Ripoarisch: Hamburg
română: Hamburg
Romani: Hamburg
rumantsch: Hamburg
Runa Simi: Hamburg
русский: Гамбург
sardu: Amburgo
Scots: Hamburgh
Seeltersk: Hambuurich
shqip: Hamburgu
sicilianu: Amburgu
Simple English: Hamburg
slovenčina: Hamburg
slovenščina: Hamburg
ślůnski: Hamburg
کوردی: ھامبورگ
српски / srpski: Хамбург
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hamburg
suomi: Hampuri
svenska: Hamburg
தமிழ்: ஆம்பர்கு
татарча/tatarça: Һамбург
Türkçe: Hamburg
Twi: Hamburg
українська: Гамбург
اردو: ہامبرگ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Hamburg
vèneto: Anburgo
vepsän kel’: Gamburg
Tiếng Việt: Hamburg
Volapük: Hamburg
文言: 漢堡
West-Vlams: Hamburg
Winaray: Hamburg
吴语: 汉堡
ייִדיש: האמבורג
Yorùbá: Hamburg
粵語: 漢堡
Zazaki: Hamburg
中文: 汉堡