The Hajj (dʒ/;Arabic: حَجّ Ḥaǧǧ "
pilgrimage") is an annual
holiest city for Muslims, and a
mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult
Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence. It is one of the
five pillars of Islam, alongside
Sawm. The Hajj is the second largest annual gathering of Muslims in the world. The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istita'ah, and a Muslim who fulfills this condition is called a mustati. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to
Allah). The word Hajj means "to intend a journey", which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions.
The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th (or in some cases 13th) of
Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the
Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is
lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the
Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year.
Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state in which pilgrims wear two white sheets of seamless cloth and abstain from certain actions.
The Hajj is associated with the life of
Islamic prophetMuhammad from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of
Abraham. During Hajj, pilgrims join processions of hundreds of thousands of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals: each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the
Kaaba (the cube-shaped building and the
direction of prayer for the Muslims), runs back and forth between the hills of
Safa and Marwah, drinks from the
Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of
Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of
Muzdalifa, and performs symbolic
stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars. The pilgrims then shave their heads, perform a ritual of animal sacrifice, and celebrate the three-day global festival of
Pilgrims can also go to Mecca to perform the rituals at other times of the year. This is sometimes called the "lesser pilgrimage", or ‘
Arabic: عُـمـرَة). However, even if they choose to perform the Umrah, they are still obligated to perform the Hajj at some other point in their lifetime if they have the means to do so, because Umrah is not a substitute for Hajj.
The word in
Arabic: حج [ħædʒ, ħæɡ] comes from the
Hebrew: חג ḥag[χaɡ], which means "holiday", from the trilateral
ח-ג-ג. The meaning of the verb is "to circle, to go around".Judaism uses
circumambulation in the
Hakafot ritual during
Hoshanah Rabbah at the end of the Festival of
Sukkot and on
Simchat Torah; traditionally, Jewish brides circumambulate their grooms during the wedding ceremony under the
chuppah. From this custom, the root was borrowed for the familiar meaning of holiday, celebration and festivity. In the
Temple, every festival would bring a sacrificial feast. Similarly in Islam, the person who commits the Hajj to Mecca has to turn around the Kaaba and to offer