Republic of Haiti
" Liberté, égalité, fraternité" (French) [1]
"Libète, Egalite, Fratènite"  (Haitian Creole)
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Motto on traditional coat of arms:
" L'union fait la force" (French)
"Inite se fòs"  (Haitian Creole) [2]
"Union makes strength"
Anthem:  La Dessalinienne  (French)
Desalinyèn  (Haitian Creole)
"The Dessalines Song"
Location of Haiti
Location of Haiti
and largest city
18°32′N 72°20′W / 18°32′N 72°20′W / 18.533; -72.333
Official languages
Ethnic groups 95% Afro-Haitian
5% Mulatto and White [3]
Demonym Haitian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
•  President
Jovenel Moïse
Jack Guy Lafontant
Legislature Parliament
Chamber of Deputies
Independence from France
• Declared
1 January 1804
• Recognized
17 April 1825
22 September 1804
9 March 1806
17 October 1806
•  Kingdom
28 March 1811
9 February 1822
• Dissolution
27 February 1844
26 August 1849
• Republic
15 January 1859
29 March 1987
• Total
27,750 km2 (10,710 sq mi) ( 143rd)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
10,847,334 [4] ( 85th)
• Density
382/km2 (989.4/sq mi) ( 32nd)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$19.979 billion [5]
• Per capita
$1,819 [5]
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$7.897 billion [5]
• Per capita
$719 [5]
Gini (2012) 60.8 [6]
very high
HDI (2015) Increase 0.493 [7]
low ·  163rd
Currency Haitian gourde (G) ( HTG)
Time zone EST ( UTC−5)
• Summer ( DST)
EDT ( UTC-4)
Drives on the right
Calling code +509
ISO 3166 code HT
Internet TLD .ht    .gouv.ht    .edu.ht [8]

Haiti ( i/ ( About this sound  listen); French: Haïti [a.iti]; Haitian Creole: Ayiti [ajiti]), officially the Republic of Haiti (French: République d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Repiblik Ayiti) [9] and formerly called Hayti, [note 1] is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. [12] [13] Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, [4] making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole. The region was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic. When Columbus initially landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or China. [14] On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus' flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade. [15] [16] [17] [18] As a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, and he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed.

The island was named La Española and claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century. Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists.

In the midst of the French Revolution (1789–1799), slaves and free people of colour revolted in the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804), culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign nation of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804 – the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, and the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt. [19] [20] The rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and later became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I. [21] [22] [23] [24] The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years; and apart from Alexandre Pétion, the first President of the Republic, all the first leaders of government were former slaves. [25] The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe – former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I – built it to withstand a possible foreign attack. [26] [27]

It is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS), [28] Association of Caribbean States, [29] and the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, [30] World Trade Organization, [31] and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. It has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most recently, in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).


The name Haiti (or Hayti) comes from the indigenous Taíno language which was the native name [note 2] given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains." [35] The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti, is a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve. [36] In English, this rule for the pronunciation is often disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and established. [37]

The name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. [38]

In French, Haiti's nickname is the Pearl of the Antilles (La Perle des Antilles) because of both its natural beauty, [39] and the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France, as it was considered the richest colony owned by any of the European powers at the time. [40]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Haïti
Alemannisch: Haiti
አማርኛ: ሃይቲ
العربية: هايتي
aragonés: Haití
arpetan: Hayiti
asturianu: Haití
Avañe'ẽ: Haiti
Aymar aru: Ayti
azərbaycanca: Haiti
تۆرکجه: هائیتی
bamanankan: Ayiti
বাংলা: হাইতি
Bahasa Banjar: Haiti
Bân-lâm-gú: Haiti
беларуская: Гаіці
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гаіці
Bikol Central: Haiti
български: Хаити
Boarisch: Haiti
བོད་ཡིག: ཧའི་ཏི།
bosanski: Haiti
brezhoneg: Republik Haiti
català: Haití
Чӑвашла: Гаити
Cebuano: Haiti
čeština: Haiti
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Haiti
chiShona: Haiti
corsu: Haiti
Cymraeg: Haiti
dansk: Haiti
davvisámegiella: Haiti
Deutsch: Haiti
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހެއިޓީ
dolnoserbski: Haiti
eesti: Haiti
Ελληνικά: Αϊτή
español: Haití
Esperanto: Haitio
estremeñu: Aití
euskara: Haiti
eʋegbe: Haiti
فارسی: هائیتی
Fiji Hindi: Haiti
føroyskt: Haiti
français: Haïti
Frysk: Haïty
Gaeilge: Háítí
Gaelg: Haiti
Gagauz: Haiti
Gàidhlig: Haiti
galego: Haití
Gĩkũyũ: Haiti
ગુજરાતી: હૈતી
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: हैती
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Haiti
한국어: 아이티
Hawaiʻi: Heiti
Հայերեն: Հայիթի
हिन्दी: हाइती
hornjoserbsce: Haiti
hrvatski: Haiti
Ido: Haiti
Ilokano: Haiti
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: হাইতি
Bahasa Indonesia: Haiti
interlingua: Haiti
Interlingue: Haiti
Ирон: Гаити
íslenska: Haítí
italiano: Haiti
עברית: האיטי
Basa Jawa: Haiti
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಹೈತಿ
Kapampangan: Haiti
ქართული: ჰაიტი
қазақша: Гаити
kernowek: Hayti
Kinyarwanda: Hayiti
Kiswahili: Haiti
коми: Гаити
Kongo: Ayiti
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ayiti
Kurdî: Haîtî
кырык мары: Гаити
Ladino: Ayti
لۊری شومالی: هائیتی
Latina: Haitia
latviešu: Haiti
Lëtzebuergesch: Haiti
lietuvių: Haitis
Ligure: Haiti
Limburgs: Haïti
lingála: Ayiti
Livvinkarjala: Gaiti
lumbaart: Haiti
magyar: Haiti
македонски: Хаити
Malagasy: Haiti
മലയാളം: ഹെയ്റ്റി
Malti: Ħaiti
मराठी: हैती
მარგალური: ჰაიტი
مصرى: هاييتى
Bahasa Melayu: Haiti
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Haiti
монгол: Гаити
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟေတီနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Aiti
Nederlands: Haïti
Nedersaksies: Haïti
नेपाली: हाईटी
नेपाल भाषा: हेइटी
日本語: ハイチ
Nordfriisk: Haiti
Norfuk / Pitkern: Haiti
norsk: Haiti
norsk nynorsk: Haiti
Novial: Haiti
олык марий: Гаити
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ହିଟି
Oromoo: Heyitii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gaiti
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹੈਤੀ
पालि: हेटी
پنجابی: ہیٹی
Papiamentu: Haiti
پښتو: هایتي
Patois: Ieti
Piemontèis: Haiti
Plattdüütsch: Haiti
polski: Haiti
português: Haiti
Qaraqalpaqsha: Gaiti
qırımtatarca: Haiti
română: Haiti
sardu: Haiti
Scots: Haiti
shqip: Haitia
sicilianu: Aiti
සිංහල: හෙයිටි
Simple English: Haiti
سنڌي: هيٽي
SiSwati: IHayithi
slovenčina: Haiti (štát)
slovenščina: Haiti
ślůnski: Hajiti
Soomaaliga: Haiti
کوردی: ھایتی
српски / srpski: Хаити
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Haiti
Basa Sunda: Haiti
suomi: Haiti
svenska: Haiti
Tagalog: Hayti
தமிழ்: எயிட்டி
татарча/tatarça: Haiti
తెలుగు: హైతి
tetun: Haití
Türkçe: Haiti
українська: Гаїті
اردو: ہیٹی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھايتى
Vahcuengh: Haiti
vèneto: Haiti
vepsän kel’: Haiti
Tiếng Việt: Haiti
Volapük: Haitiyän
Võro: Haiti
walon: Ayiti
文言: 海地
Winaray: Haiti
Wolof: Ayiti
吴语: 海地
ייִדיש: האיטי
Yorùbá: Hàítì
粵語: 海地
Zazaki: Haiti
Zeêuws: Haïti
žemaitėška: Haėtis
中文: 海地
डोटेली: हाईटी