Haiti

Republic of Haiti

Motto: 
"Liberté, égalité, fraternité" (French)[1]
"Libète, Egalite, Fratènite"  (Haitian Creole)
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Motto on traditional coat of arms:
"L'union fait la force" (French)
"Inite se fòs"  (Haitian Creole)[2]
"Union makes strength"
Anthem: La Dessalinienne  (French)
Desalinyèn  (Haitian Creole)
"The Dessalines Song"
Location of Haiti
Location of Haiti
Capital
and largest city
Port-au-Prince
18°32′N 72°20′W / 18°32′N 72°20′W / 18.533; -72.333
Official languages
Ethnic groups
95% black
5% mixed and white[3]
Demonym(s)Haitian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Jovenel Moïse
Jean-Michel Lapin
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence 
from France
• Declared
1 January 1804
• Recognized
17 April 1825
22 September 1804
9 March 1806
17 October 1806
• Kingdom
28 March 1811
9 February 1822
• Dissolution
27 February 1844
26 August 1849
• Republic
15 January 1859
29 March 1987
Area
• Total
27,750 km2 (10,710 sq mi) (143rd)
• Water (%)
0.7
Population
• 2018 estimate
11,123,178[4][5] (85th)
• Density
382/km2 (989.4/sq mi) (32nd)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$19.979 billion[6] (144th)
• Per capita
$1,819[6] (174th)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$7.897 billion[6] (139th)
• Per capita
$719[6] (172nd)
Gini (2012)60.8[7]
very high
HDI (2015)Increase 0.493[8]
low · 163rd
CurrencyHaitian gourde (G) (HTG)
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 (EDT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+509
ISO 3166 codeHT
Internet TLD.ht

Haiti (i/ (About this soundlisten); French: Haïti [a.iti]; Haitian Creole: Ayiti [ajiti]), officially the Republic of Haiti (French: République d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Repiblik Ayiti)[9] and formerly called Hayti,[note 1] is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island which it shares with the Dominican Republic.[12][13] To its south-west lies the small island of Navassa Island, which is claimed by Haiti but is disputed as a United States territory under federal administration.[14][15] Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated population of 11.1 million,[4][5] making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean after Cuba.

The island was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people, who migrated from South America. The first Europeans arrived on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, who initially believed he had found India or China.[16] Columbus subsequently founded the first European settlement in the Americas, La Navidad, on what is now the northeastern coast of Haiti.[17][18][19][20] The island was claimed by Spain and named La Española, forming part of the Spanish Empire until the early 17th century. However, competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France in 1697, which was subsequently named Saint-Domingue. French colonists established lucrative sugarcane plantations, worked by vast numbers of slaves brought from Africa, which made the colony one of the richest in the world.

In the midst of the French Revolution (1789–99), slaves and free people of color launched the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804), led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture. After 12 years of conflict, Napoleon Bonaparte's forces were defeated by Louverture's successor, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty on 1 January 1804 — the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the first country to abolish slavery, and the only state in history established by a successful slave revolt.[21][22] Apart from Alexandre Pétion, the first President of the Republic, all of Haiti's first leaders were former slaves.[23] After a brief period in which the country was split in two, President Jean-Pierre Boyer united the country and then attempted to bring the whole of Hispaniola under Haitian control, precipitating a long series of wars that ended in the 1870s when Haiti formally recognised the independence of the Dominican Republic. Haiti's first century of independence was characterised by political instability, ostracism by the international community and the payment of a crippling debt to France. Political volatility and foreign economic influence in the country prompted the United States to occupy the country from 1915-34. Following a series of short-lived presidencies, François 'Papa Doc' Duvalier took power in 1956, ushering in a long period of autocratic rule that was continued by his son Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier that lasted until 1986; the period was characterised by state-sanctioned violence against the opposition and civilians, corruption and economic stagnation. Since 1986 Haiti has been attempting to establish a more democratic political system.

Haiti is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS),[24] Association of Caribbean States,[25] and the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund,[26] World Trade Organization,[27] and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. Historically poor and politically unstable, Haiti has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Since the turn of the 21st century, the country has endured a coup d'état, which prompted a U.N. intervention, as well as a deadly earthquake that killed over 250,000.

Etymology

The name Haiti (or Hayti) comes from the indigenous Taíno language which was the native name[note 2] given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains."[31] The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti has a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve.[32] In English, this rule for the pronunciation is often disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and best-established.[33] The name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors.[34]

In French, Haiti's nickname is the "Pearl of the Antilles" (La Perle des Antilles) because of both its natural beauty,[35] and the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France; during the 18th century the colony was the world's leading producer of sugar and coffee.[36]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Haïti
Alemannisch: Haiti
አማርኛ: ሃይቲ
العربية: هايتي
aragonés: Haití
arpetan: Hayiti
asturianu: Haití
Avañe'ẽ: Haiti
Aymar aru: Ayti
azərbaycanca: Haiti
تۆرکجه: هائیتی
bamanankan: Ayiti
বাংলা: হাইতি
Banjar: Haiti
Bân-lâm-gú: Haiti
беларуская: Гаіці
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гаіці
भोजपुरी: हैती
Bikol Central: Haiti
български: Хаити
Boarisch: Haiti
བོད་ཡིག: ཧའི་ཏི།
bosanski: Haiti
brezhoneg: Republik Haiti
català: Haití
Чӑвашла: Гаити
Cebuano: Haiti
čeština: Haiti
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Haiti
chiShona: Haiti
corsu: Haiti
Cymraeg: Haiti
dansk: Haiti
davvisámegiella: Haiti
Deutsch: Haiti
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހެއިޓީ
dolnoserbski: Haiti
डोटेली: हाईटी
eesti: Haiti
Ελληνικά: Αϊτή
español: Haití
Esperanto: Haitio
estremeñu: Aití
euskara: Haiti
eʋegbe: Haiti
فارسی: هائیتی
Fiji Hindi: Haiti
føroyskt: Haiti
français: Haïti
Frysk: Haïty
Gaeilge: Háítí
Gaelg: Haiti
Gagauz: Haiti
Gàidhlig: Haiti
galego: Haití
Gĩkũyũ: Haiti
ગુજરાતી: હૈતી
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: हैती
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Haiti
한국어: 아이티
Hausa: Haiti
Hawaiʻi: Heiti
հայերեն: Հայիթի
हिन्दी: हाइती
hornjoserbsce: Haiti
hrvatski: Haiti
Ido: Haiti
Ilokano: Haiti
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: হাইতি
Bahasa Indonesia: Haiti
interlingua: Haiti
Interlingue: Haiti
Ирон: Гаити
íslenska: Haítí
italiano: Haiti
עברית: האיטי
Jawa: Haiti
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಹೈತಿ
Kapampangan: Haiti
ქართული: ჰაიტი
қазақша: Гаити
kernowek: Hayti
Kinyarwanda: Hayiti
Kiswahili: Haiti
коми: Гаити
Kongo: Ayiti
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ayiti
kurdî: Haîtî
Кыргызча: Гаити
кырык мары: Гаити
Ladino: Ayti
لۊری شومالی: هائیتی
Latina: Haitia
latviešu: Haiti
Lëtzebuergesch: Haiti
lietuvių: Haitis
Ligure: Haiti
Limburgs: Haïti
lingála: Ayiti
Lingua Franca Nova: Aiti
Livvinkarjala: Gaiti
lumbaart: Haiti
magyar: Haiti
македонски: Хаити
Malagasy: Haiti
മലയാളം: ഹെയ്റ്റി
Malti: Ħaiti
मराठी: हैती
მარგალური: ჰაიტი
مصرى: هاييتى
مازِرونی: هائیتی
Bahasa Melayu: Haiti
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Haiti
монгол: Хаити
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟေတီနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Aiti
Nederlands: Haïti
Nedersaksies: Haïti
नेपाली: हाईटी
नेपाल भाषा: हेइटी
日本語: ハイチ
Nordfriisk: Haiti
Norfuk / Pitkern: Haiti
norsk: Haiti
norsk nynorsk: Haiti
Novial: Haiti
олык марий: Гаити
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ହିଟି
Oromoo: Heyitii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gaiti
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹੈਤੀ
पालि: हेटी
پنجابی: ہیٹی
Papiamentu: Haiti
پښتو: هایتي
Patois: Ieti
Piemontèis: Haiti
Plattdüütsch: Haiti
polski: Haiti
português: Haiti
Qaraqalpaqsha: Gaiti
qırımtatarca: Haiti
română: Haiti
русиньскый: Гайти
sardu: Haiti
Scots: Haiti
shqip: Haiti
sicilianu: Aiti
සිංහල: හෙයිටි
Simple English: Haiti
سنڌي: هيٽي
SiSwati: IHayithi
slovenčina: Haiti (štát)
slovenščina: Haiti
ślůnski: Hajiti
Soomaaliga: Haiti
کوردی: ھایتی
српски / srpski: Хаити
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Haiti
Sunda: Haiti
suomi: Haiti
svenska: Haiti
Tagalog: Haiti
தமிழ்: எயிட்டி
татарча/tatarça: Haiti
తెలుగు: హైతి
tetun: Haití
тоҷикӣ: Ҳаитӣ
Türkçe: Haiti
українська: Гаїті
اردو: ہیٹی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھايتى
Vahcuengh: Haiti
vèneto: Haiti
vepsän kel’: Haiti
Tiếng Việt: Haiti
Volapük: Haitiyän
Võro: Haiti
walon: Ayiti
文言: 海地
Winaray: Haiti
Wolof: Ayiti
吴语: 海地
ייִדיש: האיטי
Yorùbá: Hàítì
粵語: 海地
Zazaki: Haiti
Zeêuws: Haïti
žemaitėška: Haėtis
中文: 海地