Hainanese

Hainanese
Qiong wen
海南話 Hái-nâm-oe
Pronunciation[hai˨˩˧ nam˨˩ ue˨˧] (Haikou dialect)
Native toChina
RegionHainan
EthnicityHainanese
Native speakers
Around 5 million in China (2002)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Dialects
Chinese characters[citation needed]
Hainan Romanized
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
hain1238[2]
Linguasphere79-AAA-k
Min dialect map.svg
  Hainanese
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Bible in Hainan Romanised (Genesis), published by the Bible Society of Great Britain.

Hainanese (Hainan Romanised: Hái-nâm-oe, simplified Chinese: 海南话; traditional Chinese: 海南話; pinyin: Hǎinán huà), also known as Qióng Wén (simplified Chinese: 琼文; traditional Chinese: 瓊文) or Qióng yǔ (瓊語; 琼语),[citation needed] is a group of Min Chinese varieties spoken in the southern Chinese island province of Hainan. In the classification of Yuan Jiahua, it was included in the Southern Min group, although it is mutually unintelligible with Southern Min varieties such as HokkienTaiwanese and Teochew.[3] In the classification of Li Rong, used by the Language Atlas of China, it was treated as a separate Min subgroup.[4] Hou Jingyi combined it with Leizhou Min, spoken on the neighboring mainland Leizhou Peninsula, in a Qiong–Lei group.[5] "Hainanese" is also used for the language of the Li people living in Hainan, but generally refers to Min varieties spoken in Hainan.

Phonology

Hainanese has seven phonemic vowels[citation needed].

Front Central Back
Close /i/ /u/
Mid /e/ /ɛ/ /o/ /ɔ/
Open /a/

Hainanese notably has a series of implosive consonants, which it acquired through contact with surrounding languages, probably Hlai.

Labial Dental Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless /p/
八/帮
poi/pang
/t/
心/洗
tim/toi
/k/
公/讲
kóng/kǒng
(/ʔ/)
安/啊
an/ah
Aspirated //
婆/朋
pho/phong
(//)

khu
voiced/implosive /ɓ/
肥/笨
bui/bun
/ɗ/
汝/茶
du/dei
(/ɠ/)
Affricate /ts/~//
真/食
tsin/tsia
Fricative voiceless /f/
皮/非
fi/fuai
/s/~/ɕ/
事/出
sei/sut
/x/

hu
/h/
海/睡
hai/hoi
voiced /v/
文/我
vun/va
/z/~/ʑ/
日/原
zeh/zuan
/ɦ/
Nasal /m/
面/目
min/mak
/n/
南/年
nam/nin
/ŋ/
五/严
ngou/ngiam
Approximant (/w/)
发/王
wat/wong
/l/
蓝/老
lam/lao
(/j/)
肉/也
yok/ya

The phonological system of Hainanese corresponds well with that of Hokkien, but it has had some restructuring. In particular, etymological *anterior plain stops have undergone implosivization (*p > [ɓ], *t > [ɗ], etymological *aspirated stops have spirantized (*pʰ > [f], *tʰ > [h], *cʰ > [ɕ] *kʰ > [x]), and etymological *s have hardened into stops (*s > [t]), and *h > [ɦ]. Additionally, some dialects have [ɡ], and [ʑ] is allophonic with /j/.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Hái-lâm-ōe
français: Hainanais
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hói-nàm-fa
한국어: 하이난어
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Hainan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hāi-nàng-ngṳ̄
Nederlands: Hainanhua
日本語: 海南語
português: Hainanês
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Hải Nam
吴语: 琼语
粵語: 海南話
中文: 海南话