HIV

  • human immunodeficiency viruses
    scanning electron micrograph of hiv-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte. multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions.
    scanning electron micrograph of hiv-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte. multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions.
    scientific classificationedit this classification
    (unranked): virus
    phylum: incertae sedis
    class: incertae sedis
    order: ortervirales
    family: retroviridae
    subfamily: orthoretrovirinae
    genus: lentivirus
    groups included
    • human immunodeficiency virus 1
    • human immunodeficiency virus 2
    other lentiviruses
    • bovine immunodeficiency virus
    • caprine arthritis encephalitis virus
    • equine infectious anemia virus
    • feline immunodeficiency virus
    • jembrana disease virus
    • puma lentivirus
    • simian immunodeficiency virus
    • visna-maedi virus

    the human immunodeficiency viruses (hiv) are two species of lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that infect humans. over time they cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids),[1][2] a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. without treatment, average survival time after infection with hiv is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the hiv subtype.[3] in most cases, hiv is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. research has shown (for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples) that hiv is untransmissable through condomless sexual intercourse if the hiv-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load.[4][5] non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, during childbirth by exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid, and through breast milk.[6][7][8][9] within these bodily fluids, hiv is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.

    hiv infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as helper t cells (specifically cd4+ t cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells.[10] hiv infection leads to low levels of cd4+ t cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected t cells,[11] apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells,[12] direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected cd4+ t cells by cd8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells.[13] when cd4+ t cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections, leading to the development of aids.

  • virology
  • diagnosis
  • research
  • treatment and transmission
  • history
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Human immunodeficiency viruses
Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte. Multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions.
Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte. Multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions.
Scientific classificationEdit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Phylum: incertae sedis
Class: incertae sedis
Order: Ortervirales
Family: Retroviridae
Subfamily: Orthoretrovirinae
Genus: Lentivirus
Groups included
Other lentiviruses

The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that infect humans. Over time they cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),[1][2] a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.[3] In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. Research has shown (for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples) that HIV is untransmissable through condomless sexual intercourse if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load.[4][5] Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, during childbirth by exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid, and through breast milk.[6][7][8][9] Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.

HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells.[10] HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells,[11] apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells,[12] direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells.[13] When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections, leading to the development of AIDS.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: MIV
Alemannisch: HIV
አማርኛ: ኤችአይቪ
বাংলা: এইচআইভি
Bân-lâm-gú: HIV
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: ВІЧ
български: ХИВ
bosanski: HIV
čeština: HIV
Cymraeg: HIV
Deutsch: HIV
eesti: HIV
Esperanto: HIV
فارسی: اچ‌آی‌وی
Frysk: HIV
հայերեն: ՄԻԱՎ
हिन्दी: एचआइवी
hrvatski: HIV
Ilokano: HIV
Bahasa Indonesia: HIV
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐊᓴᐱ
íslenska: HIV-veira
italiano: HIV
עברית: HIV
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಎಚ್‌.ಐ.ವಿ.
kurdî: Soy HIV
latviešu: HIV
lietuvių: ŽIV
magyar: HIV
македонски: ХИВ
മലയാളം: എച്ച്.ഐ.വി.
Bahasa Melayu: HIV
Nederlands: Hiv
नेपाली: एचआइभी
norsk: Hiv
олык марий: АИВ
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଏଚ.ଆଇ.ଭି.
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਐਚਆਈਵੀ
română: HIV
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱮᱰᱥ
Scots: HIV
shqip: HIV
Simple English: HIV
slovenščina: HIV
српски / srpski: ХИВ
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: HIV
Sunda: HIV
suomi: HIV
svenska: HIV
Tagalog: HIV
தமிழ்: எச்.ஐ.வி
Türkçe: HIV
Türkmençe: AIW
Tiếng Việt: HIV
Võro: HIV
Winaray: HIV
粵語: HIV
Zazaki: HIV