The etymology of "Guinea" is uncertain. The English term Guinea comes directly from the
Portuguese word Guiné, which emerged in the mid-15th century to refer to the lands inhabited by the Guineus, a generic term for the black African peoples south of the
Senegal River (as opposed to the 'tawny'
Berbers, north of it, whom they called Azenegues or Moors). The term "Guinea" is extensively used in the 1453 chronicle of
Gomes Eanes de Zurara.
John II of Portugal took up the title of Senhor da Guiné (Lord of Guinea) from 1483. It is believed the Portuguese borrowed Guineus from the
Berber term Ghinawen (sometimes
Arabized as Guinauha or Genewah) meaning "the burnt people" (analogous to the
Aithiops, "of the burned face").
 The Berber terms "aginaw" and "
 mean "black" and "land of the blacks", respectively.
A competing theory, first forwarded by
Leo Africanus in 1526, claims that 'Guinea' is derived from
Djenné, the great interior commercial city on the Upper
 Djenné dominated the gold and salt trade across West Africa, from the 11th century (fall of
Ghana) until the 13th century (when the
Mali invasion disrupted its routes and redirected trade to
Timbuktu, hitherto just a small Djenné outpost). It is during the period of Djenné dominance that the term Genewah really comes forward into usage in Arab sources (al-Sudan - Arabic for "blacks" - is used more commonly before).
Other theories try to connect "Guinea" to "Ghana", but this is less certain. The
Ghana Empire is named after the Medieval trading city of Ghanah mentioned already by 11th-century Arab geographers (e.g.
al-Bakri), but it is used distinctly from Genewah by Arab sources (e.g. they would say "Ghanah in the country of Genewah").
 Conversely, it remains possible that both Ghana and Djenné themselves owe their original city names to the Berber appellation for the blacks that lived there. A possible reconciliation of the theories is that the Berber Ghinawen (blacks) was the source of the Djenné (city), which in turn gave rise to the Arabic Genewah (land dominated by that city), which finally made it into the Portuguese Guiné.