Guayaquil

Guayaquil
City
Santiago de Guayaquil
Top left: A night view of lighthouse in Santa Ana Hill, Top upper right: A view of Malecon Simon Bolivar, downtown area, from Santa Ana Hill, Top lower right: Guayaquil Metropolitan Cathedral, Middle left: Guayaquil City Office, Middle right: View of Avenida Nueve de Octubre from Malecon 2000, Bottom left: View of El Carmen Hills, Bottom right: Guayas River and Guayaquil National Unity Bridge (Puente Unidad Nacional)
Top left: A night view of lighthouse in Santa Ana Hill, Top upper right: A view of Malecon Simon Bolivar, downtown area, from Santa Ana Hill, Top lower right: Guayaquil Metropolitan Cathedral, Middle left: Guayaquil City Office, Middle right: View of Avenida Nueve de Octubre from Malecon 2000, Bottom left: View of El Carmen Hills, Bottom right: Guayas River and Guayaquil National Unity Bridge (Puente Unidad Nacional)
Official seal of Guayaquil
Seal
Nickname(s): 
La Perla del Pacífico
English: The Pearl of the Pacific
Motto(s): 
Por Guayaquil Independiente
English: For Independent Guayaquil
Guayaquil is located in Ecuador
Guayaquil
Guayaquil
Guayaquil is located in South America
Guayaquil
Guayaquil
Coordinates: 2°11′S 79°53′W / 2°11′S 79°53′W / -2.183; -79.883(2019)
 • City2,698,077[1]
 • Metro
3,113,725
Demonym(s)Guayaquilean
Time zoneUTC-5 (ECT)
Postal code
090101 to 090158
Area code(s)(+593) 4
Vehicle registrationG
Climatewww.guayaquil.gob.ec
Aerial view of Guayaquil
Engraving depicting a map of Guayaquil in 1741.

Guayaquil (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡwaʝaˈkil] (About this soundlisten)), officially Santiago de Guayaquil, is the largest city in Ecuador. It is also the nation's main port. The city is the capital of Guayas Province and the seat of Guayaquil canton.

The city is located on the west bank of the Guayas River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Guayaquil.

History

Guayaquil was founded on July 25, 1538[2] with the name Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil (Most Noble and Most Loyal City of Santiago of Guayaquil) by Spanish conqueror Francisco de Orellana. Even before it was founded by the Spaniards, it already existed as a native village.[citation needed]

In 1687, Guayaquil was attacked and looted by English and French pirates under the command of George d'Hout (English) and Picard and Groniet (French). Of more than 260 pirates, 35 died and 46 were wounded; 75 defenders of the city died and more than 100 were wounded.

In 1709, the English captains Woodes Rogers, Etienne Courtney, and William Dampier, along with a crew of 110, looted Guayaquil and demanded ransom; however, they suddenly departed without collecting the ransom after an epidemic of yellow fever broke out.

In colonial times Guayaquil was the chief Spanish shipyard in the Pacific, yet some navigators expressed that Valdivia had better conditions.[3][4]

On October 9, 1820, almost without bloodshed, a group of civilians, supported by soldiers from the "Granaderos de Reserva", a battalion quartered in Guayaquil, overwhelmed the resistance of the Royalist guards and arrested the Spanish authorities. Guayaquil declared independence from Spain, becoming Provincia Libre de Guayaquil, and José Joaquín de Olmedo was named Jefe Civil (Civilian Chief) of Guayaquil.

On July 26, 1822, José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar held a meeting in Guayaquil to plan the future of the independent South America.

In 1829, the city was invaded by the Peruvian Army, which occupied it for seven months.

In 1860, the city was the site of the Battle of Guayaquil, the last of a series of military conflicts between the forces of the Provisional Government, led by Gabriel García Moreno and General Juan José Flores, and the forces of the Supreme Chief of Guayas, General Guillermo Franco, whose government was recognized as possessing sovereignty over the Ecuadorian territory by Peruvian president Ramón Castilla.

In 1896, large portions of the city were destroyed by a major fire.[5]

On July 8, 1898, the Guayaquil City Hall "Muy Ilustre Municipalidad de Guayaquil" officially recognized the anthem written by José Joaquín de Olmedo in 1821, with the music composed by Ana Villamil Ycaza in 1895, as the "Himno al 9 de Octubre" Canción al Nueve de Octubre, most widely known now as the "Himno a Guayaquil" (Guayaquil Anthem).

In 1922, workers in the city went on a general strike lasting three days. The strike ended after at least 300 people were killed by military and police.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Guayaquil
العربية: غواياكيل
aragonés: Guayaquil
asturianu: Guayaquil
Aymar aru: Wayakil
беларуская: Гуаякіль
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гуаякіль
български: Гуаякил
brezhoneg: Guayaquil
català: Guayaquil
čeština: Guayaquil
dansk: Guayaquil
davvisámegiella: Guayaquil
Deutsch: Guayaquil
eesti: Guayaquil
Ελληνικά: Γουαγιακίλ
español: Guayaquil
Esperanto: Guayaquil
euskara: Guayaquil
فارسی: گوایاکیل
français: Guayaquil
Gaeilge: Guayaquil
Gàidhlig: Guayaquil
galego: Guayaquil
한국어: 과야킬
հայերեն: Գուայակիլ
hrvatski: Guayaquil
Bahasa Indonesia: Guayaquil
Interlingue: Guayaquil
italiano: Guayaquil
עברית: גואיאקיל
ქართული: გუაიაკილი
Kiswahili: Guayaquil
Ladino: Guayaquil
Latina: Guaiaquilum
latviešu: Gvajakila
lietuvių: Gvajakilis
magyar: Guayaquil
македонски: Гвајакил
Malagasy: Guayaquil
Māori: Guayaquil
Bahasa Melayu: Guayaquil
Dorerin Naoero: Guayaquil
Nederlands: Guayaquil
日本語: グアヤキル
нохчийн: Гуаякиль
norsk: Guayaquil
norsk nynorsk: Guayaquil
occitan: Guayaquil
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਗੁਆਇਆਕੀਲ
پنجابی: گوآیاکوئل
Papiamentu: Guayaquil
polski: Guayaquil
português: Guayaquil
română: Guayaquil
Runa Simi: Wayakil
русский: Гуаякиль
Scots: Guayaquil
shqip: Guayaquil
Simple English: Guayaquil
ślůnski: Guayaquil
српски / srpski: Гвајакил
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Guayaquil
suomi: Guayaquil
svenska: Guayaquil
தமிழ்: உவயாகில்
татарча/tatarça: Гваякил
Türkçe: Guayaquil
українська: Гуаякіль
اردو: گوایاکل
vepsän kel’: Guajakil'
Tiếng Việt: Guayaquil
Volapük: Guayaquil
Winaray: Guayaquil
吴语: 瓜亚基尔
Yorùbá: Guayaquil
粵語: 瓜亞基爾
中文: 瓜亞基爾