Group 3 element

  • group 3 in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    alkaline earth metals  group 4
    iupac group number 3
    name by element scandium group
    cas group number
    (us, pattern a-b-a)
    iiib
    old iupac number
    (europe, pattern a-b)
    iiia

    ↓ period
    4
    image: scandium crystals
    scandium (sc)
    21 transition metal
    5
    image: yttrium crystals
    yttrium (y)
    39 transition metal
    6
    image: piece of lanthanum metal
    lanthanum (la*)
    57 lanthanide
    7 actinium (ac*)
    89 actinide

    * whether the elements lutetium (lu) and lawrencium (lr), in period 6 and 7, are in group 3 is disputed. the grouping used in this article places la and ac in group 3, which is the most common form. for other groupings, see group 3 borders.


    legend

    primordial element
    synthetic element
    atomic number color:
    black=solid

    group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table. this group, like other d-block groups, should contain four elements, but it is not agreed what elements belong in the group. scandium (sc) and yttrium (y) are always included, but the other two spaces are usually occupied by lanthanum (la) and actinium (ac), or by lutetium (lu) and lawrencium (lr); less frequently, it is considered the group should be expanded to 32 elements (with all the lanthanides and actinides included) or contracted to contain only scandium and yttrium. when the group is understood to contain all of the lanthanides, it subsumes the rare-earth metals. yttrium, and less frequently scandium, are sometimes also counted as rare-earth metals.

    three group 3 elements occur naturally: scandium, yttrium, and either lanthanum or lutetium. lanthanum continues the trend started by two lighter members in general chemical behavior, while lutetium behaves more similarly to yttrium. while the choice of lutetium would be in accordance with the trend for period 6 transition metals to behave more similarly to their upper periodic table neighbors, the choice of lanthanum is in accordance with the trends in the s-block, which the group 3 elements are chemically more similar to. they all are silvery-white metals under standard conditions. the fourth element, either actinium or lawrencium, has only radioactive isotopes. actinium, which occurs only in trace amounts, continues the trend in chemical behavior for metals that form tripositive ions with a noble gas configuration; synthetic lawrencium is calculated and partially shown to be more similar to lutetium and yttrium. so far, no experiments have been conducted to synthesize any element that could be the next group 3 element. unbiunium (ubu), which could be considered a group 3 element if preceded by lanthanum and actinium, might be synthesized in the near future, it being only three spaces away from the current heaviest element known, oganesson.

  • history
  • characteristics
  • composition of group 3
  • occurrence
  • production
  • biological chemistry
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • links to related articles

Group 3 in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
IUPAC group number 3
Name by element scandium group
CAS group number
(US, pattern A-B-A)
IIIB
old IUPAC number
(Europe, pattern A-B)
IIIA

↓ Period
4
Image: Scandium crystals
Scandium (Sc)
21 Transition metal
5
Image: Yttrium crystals
Yttrium (Y)
39 Transition metal
6
Image: Piece of lanthanum metal
Lanthanum (La*)
57 Lanthanide
7 Actinium (Ac*)
89 Actinide

* Whether the elements lutetium (Lu) and lawrencium (Lr), in period 6 and 7, are in group 3 is disputed. The grouping used in this article places La and Ac in group 3, which is the most common form. For other groupings, see group 3 borders.


Legend

primordial element
synthetic element
Atomic number color:
black=solid

Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table. This group, like other d-block groups, should contain four elements, but it is not agreed what elements belong in the group. Scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) are always included, but the other two spaces are usually occupied by lanthanum (La) and actinium (Ac), or by lutetium (Lu) and lawrencium (Lr); less frequently, it is considered the group should be expanded to 32 elements (with all the lanthanides and actinides included) or contracted to contain only scandium and yttrium. When the group is understood to contain all of the lanthanides, it subsumes the rare-earth metals. Yttrium, and less frequently scandium, are sometimes also counted as rare-earth metals.

Three group 3 elements occur naturally: scandium, yttrium, and either lanthanum or lutetium. Lanthanum continues the trend started by two lighter members in general chemical behavior, while lutetium behaves more similarly to yttrium. While the choice of lutetium would be in accordance with the trend for period 6 transition metals to behave more similarly to their upper periodic table neighbors, the choice of lanthanum is in accordance with the trends in the s-block, which the group 3 elements are chemically more similar to. They all are silvery-white metals under standard conditions. The fourth element, either actinium or lawrencium, has only radioactive isotopes. Actinium, which occurs only in trace amounts, continues the trend in chemical behavior for metals that form tripositive ions with a noble gas configuration; synthetic lawrencium is calculated and partially shown to be more similar to lutetium and yttrium. So far, no experiments have been conducted to synthesize any element that could be the next group 3 element. Unbiunium (Ubu), which could be considered a group 3 element if preceded by lanthanum and actinium, might be synthesized in the near future, it being only three spaces away from the current heaviest element known, oganesson.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Skandiumgroep
भोजपुरी: ग्रुप 3 तत्व
čeština: 3. skupina
Cymraeg: Elfen grŵp 3
한국어: 3족 원소
हिन्दी: समूह ३ तत्व
Bahasa Indonesia: Unsur golongan 3
Bahasa Melayu: Unsur kumpulan 3
Nederlands: Scandiumgroep
日本語: 第3族元素
Nordfriisk: Skandiumskööl
norsk nynorsk: Gruppe 3
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਗਰੁੱਪ 3 ਤੱਤ
polski: Skandowce
Simple English: Group 3 element
slovenčina: 3. skupina
slovenščina: Skandijeva skupina
Soomaaliga: Qaybta 3 ee curiye
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 3. grupa hemijskih elemenata
Türkçe: 3. grup element
Tiếng Việt: Nhóm nguyên tố 3
吴语: 3族元素
粵語: 3族元素
中文: 3族元素