Grenada

Grenada
Motto: "Ever Conscious of God We Aspire, Build and Advance as One People"[1]
Anthem: Hail Grenada
Map indicating the location of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles
Map indicating the location of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles
Capital
and largest city
St. George's
12°03′N 61°45′W / 12°03′N 61°45′W / 12.050; -61.750
Official languages
Recognised regional languagesGrenadian Creole English
Grenadian Creole French
Ethnic groups (2018[2])
DemonymGrenadian[3]
GovernmentUnitary two-party parliamentary system under a constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Cécile La Grenade
Keith Mitchell
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Formation
March 3, 1967
February 7, 1974
March 13, 1979
• Constitution Restoration
December 4, 1984
Area
• Total
348.5 km2 (134.6 sq mi) (185th)
• Water (%)
1.6
Population
• 2016 estimate
107,317[4] (185th)
• Density
318.58/km2 (825.1/sq mi) (45th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.701 billion[5]
• Per capita
$15,752[5]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.180 billion[5]
• Per capita
$10,925[5]
HDI (2016)Increase 0.754[6]
high · 79th
CurrencyEast Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Time zoneUTC−4
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4
Drives on theleft
Calling code+1-473
ISO 3166 codeGD
Internet TLD.gd
  1. Plus trace of Arawak / Carib.

Grenada (ə/ (About this sound listen) NAY-də) is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. It is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its size is 348.5 square kilometres (134.6 sq mi), and it had an estimated population of 107,317[4] in 2016. Its capital is St. George's. Grenada is also known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg and mace crops, of which it is one of the world's largest exporters. The national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove.

Before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, Grenada was inhabited by the indigenous Arawaks and later by the Island Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the Americas. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish ever landed or settled on the island. Following several unsuccessful attempts by Europeans to colonise the island due to resistance from the Island Caribs, French settlement and colonisation began in 1650 and continued for the next century. On 10 February 1763, Grenada was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. British rule continued, except for a period of French rule between 1779 and 1783, until 1974. From 1958 to 1962, Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies, a short-lived federation of British West Indian colonies. On 3 March 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974.

Independence was granted on 7 February 1974, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada. In March 1979, the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement overthrew Gairy's government in a coup d'état and established the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG), headed by Maurice Bishop as Prime Minister. On 19 October 1983, hard-line Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard and his wife Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under house arrest. Bishop was later freed by popular demonstration and attempted to resume power, but he was captured and executed by soldiers. On 25 October 1983, forces from the United States and the Barbados-based Regional Security System (RSS) invaded Grenada in a U.S.-led operation code-named Operation Urgent Fury. The invasion was highly criticised by the governments of Britain, Trinidad and Tobago and Canada, along with the United Nations General Assembly. Elections were held in December 1984 and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize, who served as Prime Minister until his death in December 1989.

On 7 September 2004, after being hurricane-free for 49 years, the island was directly hit by Hurricane Ivan, which damaged or destroyed 90% of the island's homes. On 14 July 2005, Hurricane Emily struck the northern part of the island causing an estimated USD $110 million (EC$297 million) worth of damage.

Etymology

The origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is likely that Spanish sailors renamed the island for the city of Granada.[7] By the beginning of the 18th century, the name "Grenada", or "la Grenade" in French, was in common use.[8]

On his third voyage to the region in 1498, Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada and named it "La Concepción" in honour of the Virgin Mary. It is said that he may have actually named it "Assumpción", but it is uncertain, as he is said to have sighted what are now Grenada and Tobago from a distance and named them both at the same time. However, history has accepted that it was Tobago he named "Assumpción" and Grenada he named "La Concepción".[7]

In 1499, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci travelled through the region with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda and mapmaker Juan de la Cosa. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island "Mayo", which is how it appeared on maps for around the next 20 years.

In the 1520s, the Spanish named the islands to the north of Mayo as Los Granadillos (Little Granadas), presumably after the mainland Spanish town. Shortly after this, Mayo disappeared from Spanish maps and an island called "Granada" took its place. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish ever landed or settled on the island.[9]

After French settlement and colonisation in 1650, the French named their colony "La Grenade". On 10 February 1763, the island of La Grenade was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. The British renamed it "Grenada", one of many place name anglicisations they carried out on the island during this time.[10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Grenada
Alemannisch: Grenada
አማርኛ: ግረነይዳ
العربية: غرينادا
aragonés: Grenada
armãneashti: Grenada
asturianu: Granada (país)
Avañe'ẽ: Gyranáta
Aymar aru: Grenada
azərbaycanca: Qrenada
تۆرکجه: گرانادا
বাংলা: গ্রেনাডা
Bân-lâm-gú: Grenada
башҡортса: Гренада
беларуская: Грэнада
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Грэнада
भोजपुरी: ग्रिनेदा
Bikol Central: Grenada
български: Гренада
Boarisch: Grenada
bosanski: Grenada
brezhoneg: Grenada
буряад: Гренада
català: Grenada
Cebuano: Grenada
čeština: Grenada
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Granada (país)
chiShona: Grenada
Cymraeg: Grenada
dansk: Grenada
davvisámegiella: Grenada
Deutsch: Grenada
ދިވެހިބަސް: ގެރެންޑާ
dolnoserbski: Grenada
eesti: Grenada
Ελληνικά: Γρενάδα
эрзянь: Гренада
español: Granada (país)
Esperanto: Grenado (lando)
estremeñu: Grenada
euskara: Grenada
eʋegbe: Grenada
فارسی: گرنادا
Fiji Hindi: Grenada
føroyskt: Grenada
français: Grenade (pays)
Frysk: Grenada
Gaeilge: Greanáda
Gaelg: Grenada
Gagauz: Grenada
Gàidhlig: Greanada
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ग्रेनेडा
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Grenada
한국어: 그레나다
հայերեն: Գրենադա
हिन्दी: ग्रेनाडा
hornjoserbsce: Grenada
hrvatski: Grenada
Ido: Grenada
Ilokano: Grenada
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: গ্রেনাডা
Bahasa Indonesia: Grenada
interlingua: Grenada
Interlingue: Grenada
Ирон: Гренадæ
íslenska: Grenada
italiano: Grenada
עברית: גרנדה
Basa Jawa: Grenada
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಗ್ರೆನಾಡ
Kapampangan: Grenada
ქართული: გრენადა
қазақша: Гренада
kernowek: Grenayd
Kinyarwanda: Gerenada
Kiswahili: Grenada
коми: Гренада
Kreyòl ayisyen: Grenad
kurdî: Grenada
Кыргызча: Гренада
latviešu: Grenāda
Lëtzebuergesch: Grenada
lietuvių: Grenada
Ligure: Grenada
Limburgs: Grenada
lingála: Grenada
Livvinkarjala: Grenada
lumbaart: Grenada
magyar: Grenada
македонски: Гренада
മലയാളം: ഗ്രനേഡ
Malti: Grenada
मराठी: ग्रेनेडा
მარგალური: გრენადა
مصرى: جرينادا
مازِرونی: گرانادا
Bahasa Melayu: Grenada
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Grenada
мокшень: Гренада
монгол: Гренад улс
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂရီနေဒါနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Grenada
Nederlands: Grenada
नेपाली: ग्रिनाडा
नेपाल भाषा: ग्रेनेडा
日本語: グレナダ
нохчийн: Гренада
Nordfriisk: Grenaada
Norfuk / Pitkern: Grenada
norsk: Grenada
norsk nynorsk: Grenada
Novial: Grenada
occitan: Grenada
олык марий: Гренада
Oromoo: Giranaadaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Grenada
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਗ੍ਰੇਨਾਡਾ
پنجابی: گریناڈا
Papiamentu: Grenada
پښتو: گرېنادا
Patois: Grinieda
Piemontèis: Grenada
Plattdüütsch: Grenada
polski: Grenada
português: Granada (país)
Qaraqalpaqsha: Grenada
qırımtatarca: Grenada
română: Grenada
Runa Simi: Grinada
русский: Гренада
саха тыла: Гренада
संस्कृतम्: ग्रेनाडा
sardu: Grenada
Scots: Grenada
shqip: Grenada
sicilianu: Grenada
Simple English: Grenada
SiSwati: IGelenada
slovenčina: Grenada
slovenščina: Grenada
ślůnski: Grenada
کوردی: گرینادا
српски / srpski: Гренада
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Grenada
Basa Sunda: Grénada
suomi: Grenada
svenska: Grenada
Tagalog: Grenada
தமிழ்: கிரெனடா
Taqbaylit: Grenada
татарча/tatarça: Гренада
తెలుగు: గ్రెనడా
tetun: Granada
тоҷикӣ: Гренада
Türkçe: Grenada
українська: Гренада
اردو: گریناڈا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: گرېنادا
Vahcuengh: Grenada
vèneto: Granada
vepsän kel’: Grenad
Tiếng Việt: Grenada
Volapük: Grenadeän
Võro: Grenada
文言: 格瑞那達
Winaray: Grenada
Wolof: Grenada
吴语: 格林纳达
ייִדיש: גרענאדע
Yorùbá: Grẹ̀nádà
粵語: 格林納達
Zazaki: Grenada
Zeêuws: Grenada
žemaitėška: Grenada
中文: 格林纳达
डोटेली: ग्रिनाडा
Lingua Franca Nova: Grenada