Grammar

  • in linguistics, grammar (from ancient greek γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases and words in a natural language. the term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.

    fluent speakers of a language variety or lect have a set of internalized rules which constitutes its grammar.[1] the vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native languageacquired not by conscious study or instruction but by hearing other speakers. much of this work is done during early childhood; learning a language later in life usually involves more explicit instruction.[2] thus, grammar is the cognitive information underlying language use.

    the term "grammar" can also describe the rules which govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. for example, the term "english grammar" may refer to the whole of english grammar; that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case the term encompasses a great deal of variation.[3] alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all or most english speakers (such as subject–verb–object word order in simple declarative sentences). it may also refer to the rules of one relatively well-defined form of english (such as standard english for a region).

    a description, study, or analysis of such rules may also be referred to as a grammar. a reference book describing the grammar of a language is called a "reference grammar" or simply "a grammar" (see history of english grammars). a fully explicit grammar which exhaustively describes the grammatical constructions of a particular speech variety is called a descriptive grammar. this kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to actively discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while codifying and promoting others, either in an absolute sense or in reference to a standard variety. for example, some prescriptivists maintain that sentences in english should not end with prepositions, a prohibition that has been traced to john dryden (13 april 1668 – january 1688) whose unexplained objection to the practice perhaps led other english speakers to avoid the construction and discourage its use.[4][5] yet preposition stranding has a long history in germanic languages like english, where it is so widespread as to be a standard usage.

    outside linguistics, the term grammar is often used in a rather different sense. it may be used more broadly to include conventions of spelling and punctuation, which linguists would not typically consider as part of grammar but rather as part of orthography, the conventions used for writing a language. it may also be used more narrowly to refer to a set of prescriptive norms only, excluding those aspects of a language's grammar which are not subject to variation or debate on their normative acceptability. jeremy butterfield claimed that, for non-linguists, "grammar is often a generic way of referring to any aspect of english that people object to."[6]

  • etymology
  • history
  • theoretical frameworks
  • development of grammars
  • education
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

In linguistics, grammar (from Ancient Greek γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases and words in a natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.

Fluent speakers of a language variety or lect have a set of internalized rules which constitutes its grammar.[1] The vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native languageacquired not by conscious study or instruction but by hearing other speakers. Much of this work is done during early childhood; learning a language later in life usually involves more explicit instruction.[2] Thus, grammar is the cognitive information underlying language use.

The term "grammar" can also describe the rules which govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. For example, the term "English grammar" may refer to the whole of English grammar; that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case the term encompasses a great deal of variation.[3] Alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all or most English speakers (such as subject–verb–object word order in simple declarative sentences). It may also refer to the rules of one relatively well-defined form of English (such as standard English for a region).

A description, study, or analysis of such rules may also be referred to as a grammar. A reference book describing the grammar of a language is called a "reference grammar" or simply "a grammar" (see History of English grammars). A fully explicit grammar which exhaustively describes the grammatical constructions of a particular speech variety is called a descriptive grammar. This kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to actively discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while codifying and promoting others, either in an absolute sense or in reference to a standard variety. For example, some prescriptivists maintain that sentences in English should not end with prepositions, a prohibition that has been traced to John Dryden (13 April 1668 – January 1688) whose unexplained objection to the practice perhaps led other English speakers to avoid the construction and discourage its use.[4][5] Yet preposition stranding has a long history in Germanic languages like English, where it is so widespread as to be a standard usage.

Outside linguistics, the term grammar is often used in a rather different sense. It may be used more broadly to include conventions of spelling and punctuation, which linguists would not typically consider as part of grammar but rather as part of orthography, the conventions used for writing a language. It may also be used more narrowly to refer to a set of prescriptive norms only, excluding those aspects of a language's grammar which are not subject to variation or debate on their normative acceptability. Jeremy Butterfield claimed that, for non-linguists, "Grammar is often a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to."[6]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Grammatika
Alemannisch: Grammatik
አማርኛ: ሰዋስው
العربية: قواعد لغة
aragonés: Gramatica
asturianu: Gramática
azərbaycanca: Qrammatika
বাংলা: ব্যাকরণ
Bân-lâm-gú: Bûn-hoat
башҡортса: Грамматика
беларуская: Граматыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Граматыка
भोजपुरी: व्याकरण
български: Граматика
Boarisch: Grammatik
bosanski: Gramatika
brezhoneg: Yezhadur
català: Gramàtica
Чӑвашла: Грамматика
čeština: Gramatika
Cymraeg: Gramadeg
dansk: Grammatik
Deutsch: Grammatik
eesti: Grammatika
Ελληνικά: Γραμματική
эрзянь: Грамматика
español: Gramática
Esperanto: Gramatiko
estremeñu: Gramática
euskara: Gramatika
Fiji Hindi: Vyakaran
føroyskt: Mállæra
français: Grammaire
Frysk: Grammatika
Gaelg: Grammeydys
Gàidhlig: Gràmar
galego: Gramática
贛語: 文法
한국어: 문법
हिन्दी: व्याकरण
hrvatski: Gramatika
Ilokano: Gramatika
Bahasa Indonesia: Tata bahasa
interlingua: Grammatica
Interlingue: Grammatica
isiXhosa: Igramma
íslenska: Málfræði
italiano: Grammatica
עברית: דקדוק
ಕನ್ನಡ: ವ್ಯಾಕರಣ
Kapampangan: Garalita
къарачай-малкъар: Грамматика
ქართული: გრამატიკა
қазақша: Грамматика
Kinyarwanda: Ikibonezamvugo
Kiswahili: Sarufi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Gramè
kriyòl gwiyannen: Gramèr
kurdî: Rêziman
Кыргызча: Грамматика
Ladino: Gramatika
Latina: Grammatica
latviešu: Gramatika
lietuvių: Gramatika
Limburgs: Grammair
Lingua Franca Nova: Gramatica
la .lojban.: gerna
lumbaart: Grammatica
magyar: Nyelvtan
македонски: Граматика
മലയാളം: വ്യാകരണം
मराठी: व्याकरण
მარგალური: გრამატიკა
Bahasa Melayu: Tatabahasa
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ngṳ̄-huák
Mirandés: Gramática
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သဒ္ဒါ
Nederlands: Grammatica
नेपाली: व्याकरण
नेपाल भाषा: भाय्‌लचं
日本語: 文法
ߒߞߏ: ߞߊ߲ߜߍ
Nordfriisk: Gramatik
norsk: Grammatikk
norsk nynorsk: Grammatikk
Novial: Gramatike
occitan: Gramatica
олык марий: Йылмылончыш
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Grammatika
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਵਿਆਕਰਨ
Pangasinan: Grammar
پنجابی: گریمر
Patois: Grama
Перем Коми: Грамматика
ភាសាខ្មែរ: វេយ្យាករណ៍
Picard: Granmoère
Piemontèis: Gramàtica
Tok Pisin: Grama
Plattdüütsch: Grammatik
polski: Gramatyka
Ποντιακά: Γραμματική
português: Gramática
Qaraqalpaqsha: Grammatika
română: Gramatică
Runa Simi: Simi kamachiy
русиньскый: Ґраматіка
русский: Грамматика
саха тыла: Грамматика
संस्कृतम्: व्याकरणम्
Scots: Grammar
shqip: Gramatika
sicilianu: Grammàtica
සිංහල: ව්‍යාකරණ
Simple English: Grammar
سنڌي: گرامر
slovenščina: Slovnica
کوردی: ڕێزمان
српски / srpski: Граматика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gramatika
suomi: Kielioppi
svenska: Grammatik
Tagalog: Balarila
татарча/tatarça: Грамматика
తెలుగు: వ్యాకరణము
Türkçe: Dilbilgisi
українська: Граматика
vèneto: Gramadega
Tiếng Việt: Ngữ pháp
Volapük: Gramat
文言: 語法
Winaray: Gramatika
吴语: 語法
ייִדיש: גראמאטיק
粵語: 文法
Zazaki: Gramer
Zeêuws: Grammaotica
žemaitėška: Gramatėka
中文: 语法