Goitre

Goitre
Other namesGoiter
Thyroid, Diffuse Hyperplasia.jpg
Diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid
SpecialtyEndocrinology

A goitre, or goiter, is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.[1][2] A goitre can be associated with a thyroid that is not functioning properly.

Worldwide, over 90% of goitre cases are caused by iodine deficiency.[3] The term is from the Latin gutturia, meaning throat. Most goitres are of a benign nature.

Types

A goitre may be classified either as nodular or diffuse. Nodular goitres are either of one nodule (uninodular) or of multiple nodules (multinodular).

Growth pattern
  • Uninodular goitre: one thyroid nodule; can be either inactive, or active (toxic) – autonomously producing thyroid hormone.
  • Multinodular goitre: multiple nodules;[4] can likewise be inactive or toxic, the latter is called toxic multinodular goitre and associated with hyperthyroidism. These nodules grow up at varying rates and secrete thyroid hormone autonomously, thereby suppressing TSH-dependent growth and function in the rest of gland. Inactive nodules in the same goitre can be malignant.[5] Thyroid cancer is identified in 13.7% of the patients operated for multinodular goitre.[6]
  • Diffuse goitre: the whole thyroid appearing to be enlarged due to hyperplasia.
Size
  • Class I: the goitre in normal posture of the head cannot be seen; it is only found by palpation.
  • Class II: the goitre is palpable and can be easily seen.
  • Class III: the goitre is very large and is retrosternal (partially or totally lying below the sternum), pressure results in compression marks.
Other Languages
aragonés: Banzo tiroideu
বাংলা: গলগন্ড
Bahasa Banjar: Tekok
bosanski: Struma
català: Goll
dansk: Struma
Deutsch: Struma
eesti: Struuma
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Magòtt
español: Bocio
euskara: Golo
فارسی: گواتر
français: Goitre
Gaeilge: Ainglis
한국어: 갑상선종
հայերեն: Խպիպ
हिन्दी: घेंघा रोग
hrvatski: Gušavost
Ido: Strumo
Bahasa Indonesia: Gondok
עברית: זפקת
Kapampangan: Buklo
қазақша: Струма
kurdî: Strûma
Кыргызча: Богок
lietuvių: Gūžys (liga)
lumbaart: Magot
magyar: Golyva
മലയാളം: ഗോയിറ്റർ
Bahasa Melayu: Goiter
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လည်ပင်းကြီးရောဂါ
नेपाल भाषा: गलः
日本語: 甲状腺腫
norsk: Struma
norsk nynorsk: Struma
português: Bócio
Runa Simi: Q'utu
සිංහල: ගලගණ්ඩය
Simple English: Goitre
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gušavost
Basa Sunda: Gondok
suomi: Struuma
svenska: Struma
Tagalog: Bosyo
Türkçe: Guatr
українська: Зоб (хвороба)
中文: 甲状腺肿