Gingivitis (crop).jpg
A severe case of gingivitis

Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that causes inflammation of the gums.[1] The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal disease overall, is in response to bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) that is attached to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis.

While some cases of gingivitis never progress to periodontitis,[2] periodontitis is always preceded by gingivitis.[3]

Gingivitis is reversible with good oral hygiene; however, without treatment, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, in which the inflammation of the gums results in tissue destruction and bone resorption around the teeth. Periodontitis can ultimately lead to tooth loss.[4]

Signs and symptoms


The symptoms of gingivitis are somewhat non-specific and manifest in the gum tissue as the classic signs of inflammation:

  • Swollen gums
  • Bright red or purple gums
  • Gums that are tender or painful to the touch
  • Bleeding gums or bleeding after brushing and/or flossing
  • Bad breath (halitosis)

Additionally, the stippling that normally exists in the gum tissue of some individuals will often disappear and the gums may appear shiny when the gum tissue becomes swollen and stretched over the inflamed underlying connective tissue. The accumulation may also emit an unpleasant odor. When the gingiva are swollen, the epithelial lining of the gingival crevice becomes ulcerated and the gums will bleed more easily with even gentle brushing, and especially when flossing.


Other Languages
العربية: التهاب اللثة
Bân-lâm-gú: Khí-hoāⁿ-iām
беларуская: Гінгівіт
български: Гингивит
català: Gingivitis
čeština: Zánět dásní
Deutsch: Gingivitis
Ελληνικά: Ουλίτιδα
español: Gingivitis
euskara: Gingibitis
français: Gingivite
Gaeilge: Gingibhíteas
한국어: 치은염
հայերեն: Լնդաբորբ
Bahasa Indonesia: Gingivitis
italiano: Gengivite
Basa Jawa: Gingivitis
ქართული: გინგივიტი
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norsk: Gingivitt
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gingivit
português: Gengivite
русский: Гингивит
Simple English: Gingivitis
српски / srpski: Гингивитис
svenska: Gingivit
українська: Гінгівіт
中文: 牙龈病