German language

  • german
    deutsch
    pronunciation[dɔʏtʃ]
    native togerman-speaking europe
    regiongermany, austria and switzerland
    ethnicitygerman-speaking peoples
    • germans
    • austrians
    • swiss
    • liechtensteiners
    • luxembourgers
    native speakers
    90 million (2010) to 95 million (2014)
    l2 speakers: 10–15 million (2014)[1]
    language family
    indo-european
    • germanic
      • west germanic
        • high german
          • german
    early forms
    old high german
    • middle high german
      • early new high german
    standard forms
    german standard german
    swiss standard german
    austrian standard german
    writing system
    latin (german alphabet)
    german braille
    signed forms
    signed german, lbg
    (lautsprachbegleitende / lautbegleitende gebärden)
    official status
    official language in


    several international institutions
    recognised minority
    language in
    regulated byno official regulation
    (german orthography regulated by the council for german orthography)[2]
    language codes
    de
    deu (t)
    iso 639-3variously:
    deu – german
    gmh – middle high german
    goh – old high german
    gct – colonia tovar german
    bar – bavarian
    cim – cimbrian
    geh – hutterite german
    ksh – kölsch
    nds – low german[note 1]
    sli – lower silesian
    ltz – luxembourgish[note 2]
    vmf – mainfränkisch
    mhn – mòcheno
    pfl – palatinate german
    pdc – pennsylvania german
    pdt – plautdietsch[note 3]
    swg – swabian german
    gsw – swiss german
    uln – unserdeutsch
    sxu – upper saxon
    wae – walser german
    wep – westphalian
    hrx – riograndenser hunsrückisch
    yec – yenish
    high1287  high franconian[4]
    uppe1397  upper german[5]
    linguasphere52-ac (continental west germanic)
    52-acb (deutsch & dutch)
    52-acb-d (central german incl.
    52-acb–dl & -dm standard/generalised high german)
    52-acb-e & -f
    (upper- and swiss german)
    52-acb-h (émigré german varieties incl. 52-acb-hc hutterite german & 52-acb-he pennsylvania german etc.)

    52-acb-i (yenish);
    totalling 285 varieties: 52-acb-daa to 52-acb-i
    legal statuses of german in the world.svg
      (co-)official and majority language
      co-official, but not majority language
      statutory minority/cultural language
      non-statutory minority language
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    german (deutsch, pronounced [dɔʏtʃ] (about this soundlisten)) is a west germanic language that is mainly spoken in central europe. it is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in germany, austria, switzerland, south tyrol in italy, the german-speaking community of belgium and liechtenstein. it is one of the three official languages of luxembourg and a co-official language in the opole voivodeship in poland. the languages that are most similar to german are the other members of the west germanic language branch, including afrikaans, dutch, english, the frisian languages, low german/low saxon, luxembourgish, and yiddish. there are strong similarities in vocabulary with danish, norwegian and swedish, although those belong to the north germanic group. german is the second most widely spoken germanic language, after english.

    one of the major languages of the world, german is a native language to almost 100 million people worldwide and the most widely spoken native language in the european union.[6] german is the third most commonly spoken foreign language in the eu after english and french, making it the second biggest language in the eu in terms of overall speakers. german is also the second most widely taught foreign language in the eu after english at primary school level (but third after english and french at lower secondary level), the fourth most widely taught non-english language in the us (after spanish, french and american sign language), and the second most commonly used scientific language as well as the third most widely used language on websites after english and russian. the german-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books (including e-books) in the world being published in the german language. in the united kingdom, german and french are the most sought-after foreign languages for businesses (with 49% and 50% of businesses identifying these two languages as the most useful, respectively).[7]

    german is an inflected language with four cases for nouns, pronouns and adjectives (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative), three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter), two numbers (singular, plural), and strong and weak verbs. it derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient germanic branch of the indo-european language family. a portion of the words are derived from latin and greek, and fewer are borrowed from french and modern english. with standardized variants (german, austrian and swiss standard german), german is a pluricentric language. it is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in europe and also other parts of the world. italy recognizes all the german minorities in its territory as national historic minorities and protects the varieties of german spoken in several regions of northern italy besides south tyrol.[8] [9] due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and standard german, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some german varieties or dialect groups (e.g. low german or plautdietsch[3]) are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects".

  • classification
  • history
  • geographic distribution
  • standard german
  • dialects
  • grammar
  • vocabulary
  • orthography
  • phonology
  • literature
  • german loanwords in the english language
  • organisations
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

German
Deutsch
Pronunciation[dɔʏtʃ]
Native toGerman-speaking Europe
RegionGermany, Austria and Switzerland
EthnicityGerman-speaking peoples
Native speakers
90 million (2010) to 95 million (2014)
L2 speakers: 10–15 million (2014)[1]
Early forms
Standard forms
Latin (German alphabet)
German Braille
Signed German, LBG
(Lautsprachbegleitende / Lautbegleitende Gebärden)
Official status
Official language in


Several international institutions
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byNo official regulation
(German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography)[2]
Language codes
de
deu (T)
ISO 639-3Variously:
deu – German
gmh – Middle High German
goh – Old High German
gct – Colonia Tovar German
bar – Bavarian
cim – Cimbrian
geh – Hutterite German
ksh – Kölsch
nds – Low German[note 1]
sli – Lower Silesian
ltz – Luxembourgish[note 2]
vmf – Mainfränkisch
mhn – Mòcheno
pfl – Palatinate German
pdc – Pennsylvania German
pdt – Plautdietsch[note 3]
swg – Swabian German
gsw – Swiss German
uln – Unserdeutsch
sxu – Upper Saxon
wae – Walser German
wep – Westphalian
hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch
yec – Yenish
high1287  High Franconian[4]
uppe1397  Upper German[5]
Linguasphere52-AC (Continental West Germanic)
52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch)
52-ACB-d (Central German incl.
52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German)
52-ACB-e & -f
(Upper- and Swiss German)
52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl. 52-ACB-hc Hutterite German & 52-ACB-he Pennsylvania German etc.)

52-ACB-i (Yenish);
Totalling 285 varieties: 52-ACB-daa to 52-ACB-i
Legal statuses of German in the world.svg
  (Co-)Official and majority language
  Co-official, but not majority language
  Statutory minority/cultural language
  Non-statutory minority language
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

German (Deutsch, pronounced [dɔʏtʃ] (About this soundlisten)) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

One of the major languages of the world, German is a native language to almost 100 million people worldwide and the most widely spoken native language in the European Union.[6] German is the third most commonly spoken foreign language in the EU after English and French, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers. German is also the second most widely taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level (but third after English and French at lower secondary level), the fourth most widely taught non-English language in the US (after Spanish, French and American Sign Language), and the second most commonly used scientific language as well as the third most widely used language on websites after English and Russian. The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books (including e-books) in the world being published in the German language. In the United Kingdom, German and French are the most sought-after foreign languages for businesses (with 49% and 50% of businesses identifying these two languages as the most useful, respectively).[7]

German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns, pronouns and adjectives (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative), three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter), two numbers (singular, plural), and strong and weak verbs. It derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A portion of the words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer are borrowed from French and Modern English. With standardized variants (German, Austrian and Swiss Standard German), German is a pluricentric language. It is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world. Italy recognizes all the German minorities in its territory as national historic minorities and protects the varieties of German spoken in several regions of Northern Italy besides South Tyrol.[8] [9] Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups (e.g. Low German or Plautdietsch[3]) are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects".

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Джэрмэныбзэ
адыгабзэ: Германыбзэ
Afrikaans: Duits
Alemannisch: Deutsche Sprache
አማርኛ: ጀርመንኛ
Ænglisc: Þēodsc sprǣc
aragonés: Idioma alemán
Արեւմտահայերէն: Գերմաներէն
armãneashti: Limba ghermãnescã
arpetan: Alemand
asturianu: Idioma alemán
Avañe'ẽ: Alemañañe'ẽ
Aymar aru: Aliman aru
azərbaycanca: Alman dili
تۆرکجه: آلمان دیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Tek-gí
Basa Banyumasan: Basa Jerman
башҡортса: Немец теле
беларуская: Нямецкая мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нямецкая мова
भोजपुरी: जर्मन भाषा
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Aleman
български: Немски език
Boarisch: Deitsche Sproch
བོད་ཡིག: འཇར་མན་སྐད།
bosanski: Njemački jezik
brezhoneg: Alamaneg
català: Alemany
Чӑвашла: Нимĕç чĕлхи
Cebuano: Inaleman
čeština: Němčina
Cymraeg: Almaeneg
davvisámegiella: Duiskkagiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: އަލްމާނީ
dolnoserbski: Nimšćina
eesti: Saksa keel
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Tedèsch
español: Idioma alemán
Esperanto: Germana lingvo
estremeñu: Luenga alemana
euskara: Aleman
Fiji Hindi: German bhasa
føroyskt: Týskt mál
français: Allemand
Frysk: Dútsk
Fulfulde: Almankoore
Gaelg: Germaanish
Gàidhlig: Gearmailtis
ГӀалгӀай: Немций мотт
贛語: 德語
ગુજરાતી: જર્મન ભાષા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tet-ngî
хальмг: Немшин келн
한국어: 독일어
հայերեն: Գերմաներեն
हिन्दी: जर्मन भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Němčina
hrvatski: Njemački jezik
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জার্মান ঠার
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Jerman
interlingua: Lingua german
Interlingue: German
isiXhosa: IsiJamani
isiZulu: IsiJalimani
íslenska: Þýska
italiano: Lingua tedesca
עברית: גרמנית
Kabɩyɛ: Caama kʊnʊŋ
kalaallisut: Tyskisut
къарачай-малкъар: Немец тил
kaszëbsczi: Miemiecczi jãzëk
қазақша: Неміс тілі
kernowek: Almaynek
Kinyarwanda: Ikidage
Kiswahili: Kijerumani
Kongo: Kidoitce
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lang alman
kriyòl gwiyannen: Anlman
Кыргызча: Немис тили
لۊری شومالی: زڤون آلمانی
latviešu: Vācu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Däitsch
лезги: Немец чIал
lietuvių: Vokiečių kalba
Limburgs: Duits
lingála: Lialémani
Lingua Franca Nova: Deutx (lingua)
Livvinkarjala: Germuanien kieli
la .lojban.: dotybau
lumbaart: Lengua Tudesca
magyar: Német nyelv
मैथिली: जर्मन भाषा
македонски: Германски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny alemàna
മലയാളം: ജർമ്മൻ ഭാഷ
Māori: Reo Tiamana
მარგალური: გერმანული ნინა
مازِرونی: آلمانی زبون
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Jerman
Minangkabau: Bahaso Jerman
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dáik-ngṳ̄
Mirandés: Lhéngua almana
монгол: Герман хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျာမန်ဘာသာစကား
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Djermani
Nederlands: Duits
Nedersaksies: Duuts
नेपाली: जर्मन भाषा
नेपाल भाषा: जर्मन भाषा
日本語: ドイツ語
Napulitano: Lengua germanese
нохчийн: Немцойн мотт
Nordfriisk: Tjüsch
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jirman
norsk: Tysk
norsk nynorsk: Tysk
Nouormand: Allemaund
Novial: Germanum
occitan: Alemand
олык марий: Немыч йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Nemis tili
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਰਮਨ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ
Pälzisch: Deutsche Sprache
Pangasinan: Salitan Alemano
پنجابی: جرمن
Papiamentu: Alemán
Patois: Joerman
Перем Коми: Немеч кыв
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាអាល្លឺម៉ង់
Picard: Alemant
Piemontèis: Lenga tedësca
Tok Pisin: Tok Jeman
Plattdüütsch: Düütsche Spraak
português: Língua alemã
Qaraqalpaqsha: Nemis tili
qırımtatarca: Alman tili
reo tahiti: Reo Heremani
Ripoarisch: Dütsche Sprooch
română: Limba germană
romani čhib: Jermanikani chib
rumantsch: Lingua tudestga
Runa Simi: Aliman simi
русиньскый: Нїмецькый язык
саха тыла: Ниэмэс тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'asiamani
संस्कृतम्: जर्मन् भाषा
Seeltersk: Düütsk
Sesotho: Sejeremane
Sesotho sa Leboa: Sejeremane
Setswana: Sejeremane
sicilianu: Lingua tidesca
Simple English: German language
SiSwati: SíJalimáne
slovenčina: Nemčina
slovenščina: Nemščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Нѣмьчьскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
ślůnski: Mjymjecko godka
Soomaaliga: Af-Jarmal
српски / srpski: Немачки језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Njemački jezik
svenska: Tyska
Tagalog: Wikang Aleman
Taqbaylit: Tutlayt Talmant
tarandíne: Lènga tedesche
татарча/tatarça: Alman tele
తెలుగు: జర్మన్ భాష
Türkçe: Almanca
Türkmençe: Nemes dili
удмурт: Немец кыл
українська: Німецька мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: نېمىس تىلى
Vahcuengh: Vah Dwzgoz
vepsän kel’: Saksan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Đức
Volapük: Deutänapük
文言: 德語
West-Vlams: Duuts
Winaray: Inaleman
吴语: 德语
ייִדיש: דייטש
粵語: 德文
Zazaki: Almanki
Zeêuws: Duuts
žemaitėška: Vuokītiu kalba
中文: 德语