Georgian scripts

Georgian
Damts'erloba.svg
damts'erloba "script" in Mkhedruli
Type
LanguagesGeorgian (originally) and other Kartvelian languages
Time period
430 AD[1] – present
Parent systems
Modelled on Greek
  • Georgian
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Geor, 240 – Georgian (Mkhedruli)
Geok, 241 – Khutsuri (Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri)
Unicode alias
Georgian
U+1C90–U+1CBF Georgian Extended
Georgian scripts
Beautiful Georgian Letters.jpg
Country01205
RegionEurope and North America
Inscription history
Inscription2016 (11 session)

The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli. Although the systems differ in appearance, all three are unicase, their letters share the same names and alphabetical order, and are written horizontally from left to right. Of the three scripts, Mkhedruli, once the civilian royal script of the Kingdom of Georgia and mostly used for the royal charters, is now the standard script for modern Georgian and its related Kartvelian languages, whereas Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri are used only by the Georgian Orthodox Church, in ceremonial religious texts and iconography.[2]

Georgian scripts are unique in their appearance and their exact origin has never been established; however, in strictly structural terms, their alphabetical order largely corresponds to the Greek alphabet, with the exception of letters denoting uniquely Georgian sounds, which are grouped at the end.[3][4] Originally consisting of 38 letters,[5] Georgian is presently written in a 33-letter alphabet, as five letters are currently obsolete in that language. The number of Georgian letters used in other Kartvelian languages varies. Mingrelian uses 36: 33 that are current Georgian letters, one obsolete Georgian letter, and two additional letters specific to Mingrelian and Svan. Laz uses the same 33 current Georgian letters as Mingrelian plus that same obsolete letter and a letter borrowed from Greek for a total of 35. The fourth Kartvelian language, Svan, is not commonly written, but when it is, it uses Georgian letters as utilized in Mingrelian, with an additional obsolete Georgian letter and sometimes supplemented by diacritics for its many vowels.[2][6]

Georgian scripts were granted the national status of intangible cultural heritage in Georgia in 2015[7] and inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2016.[8]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Gürcü yazısı
башҡортса: Грузин яҙыуы
беларуская: Грузінскае пісьмо
فارسی: خط گرجی
한국어: 조지아 문자
hrvatski: Gruzijska pisma
Bahasa Indonesia: Alfabet Georgia
lietuvių: Gruzinų raštas
Lingua Franca Nova: Alfabeta cartuli
македонски: Грузиска азбука
მარგალური: ქორთული ჭარალუა
Bahasa Melayu: Abjad Georgia
Nederlands: Georgisch alfabet
Nordfriisk: Georgisk skraft
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gruzin yozuvi
português: Alfabeto georgiano
Simple English: Georgian alphabet
slovenščina: Gruzinska abeceda
српски / srpski: Грузинско писмо
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gruzijska pisma