Georgia (country)

Georgia
საქართველო ( Georgian)
Sakartvelo
Motto: 
ძალა ერთობაშია
Dzala Ertobashia
Strength is in Unity
Anthem: 
თავისუფლება
Tavisupleba
Freedom
Georgia proper shown in dark green; areas outside of Georgian control shown in pattern
Georgia proper shown in dark green; areas outside of Georgian control shown in pattern
Capital Tbilisi
Kutaisi (legislative)
41°43′N 44°47′E / 41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717; 44.783
Largest city Tbilisi
Official languages Georgian [1]
Ethnic groups (2014) Georgians – 86.8%
Azerbaijanis – 6.2%
Armenians – 4.5%
Others – 2.8%
Religion Georgian Orthodox Church
Demonym Georgian
Government Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic [a]
•  President
Giorgi Margvelashvili
Irakli Kobakhidze
Giorgi Kvirikashvili
Legislature Parliament
Independence
26 May 1918
25 February 1921
• from the Soviet Union
Declared
Finalized

9 April 1991
25 December 1991
24 August 1995
Area
• Total
69,700 km2 (26,900 sq mi) ( 119th)
Population
• 2016 estimate
3,720,400 [b] [2] ( 131st)
• 2014 census
3,713,804 [b] [3]
• Density
53.5/km2 (138.6/sq mi) ( 137th)
GDP ( PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$37.38 billion [4] ( 115th)
• Per capita
$10,100 [4] ( 107th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$14.46 billion [4] ( 114th)
• Per capita
$3,908 [4] ( 110th)
Gini (2014) Negative increase 40.9 [5]
medium
HDI (2016) Increase 0.769 [6]
high ·  70th
Currency Georgian lari (₾) ( GEL)
Time zone GET ( UTC+4)
Drives on the right
Calling code +995
ISO 3166 code GE
Internet TLD .ge .გე
  1. ^ Moved in 2013 from a president-parliamentary system to a premier-presidential system.
  2. ^ Excluding occupied territories.

Georgia ( ə/; Georgian: საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo, IPA:  [sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ]) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2016 population is about 3.72 million. Georgia is a unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.

During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia. The Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, and successive dynasties of Iran. In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century. Following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia obtained its short-lived independence and established a republic led by the Social-Democrats in 1918, only to be invaded by Soviet Russia in 1921 and subsequently absorbed into the Soviet Union as the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.

A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-communist Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia pursued a strongly pro-Western foreign policy, aiming at NATO and European integration, and introduced a series of democratic and economic reforms, which brought about mixed results, but strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia.

Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. It contains two de facto independent regions, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained very limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and the overwhelming majority of the international community consider the regions to be part of Georgia's sovereign territory under Russian military occupation. [8]

Etymology

"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map

"Georgia" probably stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān and Arabic ĵurĵan/ĵurzan. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, [9] while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός ("tiller of the land"). As Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān ("wolf" [10]) as the root of the word. [11] Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was later adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages. [11] [12] This term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near- Caspian region, which was referred to as Gorgan ("land of the wolves" [13]). [11]

The native name is Sakartvelo ( საქართველო; "land of Kartvelians"), derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, and in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi (ქართველები, i.e. " Kartvelians").

The medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times. [11] The name Sakartvelo (საქართველო) consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i (ქართველ-ი), specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, or Iberia as it is known in sources of the Eastern Roman Empire. [14] Ancient Greeks ( Strabo, Herodotus, Plutarch, Homer, etc.) and Romans ( Titus Livius, Tacitus, etc.) referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians (Iberoi in some Greek sources). [15]

Today the full, official name of the country is "Georgia", as specified in the official English version of the Georgian constitution which reads "Georgia shall be the name of the State of Georgia." [16] Before the 1995 constitution came into force the country's name was the Republic of Georgia.

Other Languages
Acèh: Georgia
Адыгэбзэ: Хъырцей
адыгабзэ: Хъырцые
Afrikaans: Georgië
Alemannisch: Georgien
አማርኛ: ጂዮርጂያ
Ænglisc: Georgia (land)
Аҧсшәа: Қырҭтәыла
العربية: جورجيا
aragonés: Cheorchia
armãneashti: Georgia
asturianu: Xeorxa
авар: Гуржи
azərbaycanca: Gürcüstan
تۆرکجه: گورجیستان
Bahasa Banjar: Jorjiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Gruzia
башҡортса: Грузия
беларуская: Грузія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Грузія
Bikol Central: Georgya
български: Грузия
Boarisch: Georgien
bosanski: Gruzija
brezhoneg: Jorjia
буряад: Гүржи
català: Geòrgia
Чӑвашла: Грузи
Cebuano: Heyorhiya
čeština: Gruzie
chiShona: Georgia
chiTumbuka: Georgia
corsu: Georgia
Cymraeg: Georgia
dansk: Georgien
Deutsch: Georgien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖޯޖިޔާ (ޤައުމު)
dolnoserbski: Georgiska
ཇོང་ཁ: ཇཽ་ཇཱ
eesti: Gruusia
Ελληνικά: Γεωργία
español: Georgia
Esperanto: Kartvelio
estremeñu: Geólgia
euskara: Georgia
eʋegbe: Georgia
فارسی: گرجستان
Fiji Hindi: Georgia
føroyskt: Georgia (land)
français: Géorgie (pays)
Frysk: Georgje
Fulfulde: Jorjiya
Gaeilge: An tSeoirsia
Gagauz: Gruziya
Gàidhlig: A' Chairtbheil
galego: Xeorxia
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: जॉर्जिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Gruzia
Hausa: Georgia
Hawaiʻi: Keokia
Հայերեն: Վրաստան
हिन्दी: जॉर्जिया
hornjoserbsce: Georgiska
hrvatski: Gruzija
Ido: Gruzia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জর্জিয়া (রাষ্ট্র)
Bahasa Indonesia: Georgia
interlingua: Georgia (pais)
Interlingue: Georgia
íslenska: Georgía
italiano: Georgia
עברית: גאורגיה
Basa Jawa: Géorgia
kalaallisut: Georgia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜಾರ್ಜಿಯ
Kapampangan: Georgya
къарачай-малкъар: Гюрджю
ქართული: საქართველო
kaszëbsczi: Grëzóńskô
қазақша: Грузия
kernowek: Pow Grouzi
Kinyarwanda: Geworugiya
Kiswahili: Georgia (nchi)
коми: Грузия
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jeoji
Kurdî: Gurcistan
Кыргызча: Грузия
кырык мары: Грузи
лезги: Гуржистан
latgaļu: Gruzeja
Latina: Georgia
latviešu: Gruzija
Lëtzebuergesch: Georgien
lietuvių: Gruzija
Ligure: Zorzia
Limburgs: Georgië
lingála: Zolozi
Livvinkarjala: Gruuzii
lumbaart: Georgia
magyar: Grúzia
मैथिली: जर्जिया
македонски: Грузија
Malagasy: Jeorjia
Malti: Ġeorġja
Māori: Hōria
मराठी: जॉर्जिया
მარგალური: საქორთუო
مصرى: جيورجيا
مازِرونی: گرجستون
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Georgia
Baso Minangkabau: Georgia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gruzia
мокшень: Грузие
монгол: Гүрж
Nāhuatl: Georgia
Dorerin Naoero: Djiordjiya
Nederlands: Georgië
Nedersaksies: Georgië
नेपाल भाषा: जर्जिया
Napulitano: Georgia
нохчийн: Гуьржийчоь
Nordfriisk: Georgien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jorja
norsk: Georgia
norsk nynorsk: Georgia
Novial: Georgia
олык марий: Грузий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜର୍ଜିଆ
Oromoo: Ji'oorjiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gruziya
Pangasinan: Georgia
پنجابی: جارجیا
Papiamentu: Georgia
پښتو: گرجستان
Patois: Jaajia
Piemontèis: Geòrgia
Tok Pisin: Georgia
Plattdüütsch: Georgien
polski: Gruzja
Ποντιακά: Γρουζία
português: Geórgia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Gruziya
qırımtatarca: Gürcistan
română: Georgia
Runa Simi: Kartulsuyu
русиньскый: Ґрузія
русский: Грузия
саха тыла: Грузия
sámegiella: Georgia
Gagana Samoa: Siaosia (Atunuu)
संस्कृतम्: जार्जिया (देशः)
sardu: Georgia
Seeltersk: Georgien
shqip: Gjeorgjia
sicilianu: Giorgia
Simple English: Georgia (country)
SiSwati: IJojiya
slovenčina: Gruzínsko
slovenščina: Gruzija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Гєѡргїꙗ
ślůnski: Gruzyjo
Soomaaliga: Joorjiya (wadan)
کوردی: گورجستان
српски / srpski: Грузија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gruzija
Basa Sunda: Géorgia
suomi: Georgia
svenska: Georgien
Taqbaylit: Jurjya
татарча/tatarça: Гөрҗистан
tetun: Jeórjia
тоҷикӣ: Гурҷистон
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏣᎠᏥᎢ
Türkçe: Gürcistan
Türkmençe: Gruziýa
удмурт: Грузия
українська: Грузія
اردو: جارجیا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: گرۇزىيە
vèneto: Zorzania
vepsän kel’: Gruzii
Tiếng Việt: Gruzia
Volapük: Grusiyän
Võro: Gruusia
文言: 格魯吉亞
West-Vlams: Georgië
Wolof: Jeoorji
吴语: 格鲁吉亚
Xitsonga: Georgia
ייִדיש: גרוזיע
Yorùbá: Georgia
粵語: 格魯吉亞
Zazaki: Gurcıstan
Zeêuws: Georhië
žemaitėška: Grozėjė
中文: 格鲁吉亚
डोटेली: जर्जिया