Gengshi Emperor

Liu Xuan
Emperor of the Han Dynasty
SpouseConsort Zhao
Consort Han
Consort Fan
Full name
Family name: Liu 劉
Given name: Xuan 玄
Courtesy name: Shenggong 聖公

The Gengshi Emperor 更始帝
Marquess Weiwei 畏威侯
Prince of Changsha 长沙王
Era dates
Gengshi 更始 (23-25)
Posthumous name
Prince Wushun of Huaiyang 淮阳武順王
FatherLiu Zizhang
MotherLady He

The Gengshi Emperor (Chinese: 更始帝; pinyin: Gēngshǐ Dì; Wade–Giles: Keng-shih-ti; died AD 25), was an emperor of the Han Dynasty restored after the fall of Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty.[1][2][3] He was also known by his courtesy name Shenggong (simplified Chinese: 圣公; traditional Chinese: 聖公) and as the King or Prince of Huaiyang (simplified Chinese: 淮阳王; traditional Chinese: 淮陽王; pinyin: Huáiyáng Wáng), a posthumous title bestowed upon him by Emperor Guangwu of the Eastern Han. The Gengshi Emperor was viewed as a weak and incompetent ruler, who briefly ruled over an empire willing to let him rule over them, but was unable to keep that empire together. He was eventually deposed by the Chimei and strangled a few months after his defeat.[2]

Traditional historians treat his emperor status ambiguously—and sometimes he would be referred to as an emperor (with reference to his era name—thus, the Gengshi Emperor) and sometimes he would be referred to by his posthumous title, Prince of Huaiyang.[1] The later title implied that he was only a pretender and the Eastern Han was the legitimate restoration of the earlier Han.

Collapse of Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty

Late in Wang Mang's reign as the emperor of Xin Dynasty, there were agrarian revolts virtually everywhere in the empire, due to Wang's incompetent rule and the natural disasters of the time. The two largest branches were the Lülin (concentrated in modern southern Henan and northern Hubei) and Chimei (concentrated in modern southern Shandong and northern Jiangsu).[2]

In 22, the most ambitious of the rebels would emerge. Liu Yan, a descendant of a distant branch of the Han imperial clan, who lived in his ancestral territory of Chongling (舂陵, in modern Xiangfan, Hubei), had long been disgusted by Wang Mang's usurpation of the Han throne, and had long aspired to start a rebellion. His brother Liu Xiu, by contrast, was a careful and deliberate man, who was content to be a farmer. Around this time, there were prophecies being spread about that the Lius would return to power, and many men gathered about Liu Yan, requesting that he lead them. He agreed, and further joined forces with the branch of Lülin forces who had entered the proximity, and they began to capture territory instead of simply roving and raiding.[2] (It was said that many of the neighborhood young men were initially hesitant to join the rebels, but when they saw that Liu Xiu, whom they considered wise and careful, joining as well, they agreed to.) In 23, under Liu Yan's leadership, the joint forces had a major victory over Zhen Fu (甄阜), the governor of the Commandery of Nanyang, killing him. They then sieged the important city of Wancheng (the capital of Nanyang Commandery, in modern Nanyang, Henan).

Other Languages
català: Liu Xuan
Deutsch: Han Gengshidi
español: Liu Xuan
فارسی: گنگشی
français: Han Geng Shidi
한국어: 한 경시제
hrvatski: Gengshi
Bahasa Indonesia: Kaisar Gengshi
日本語: 更始帝
polski: Liu Xuan
русский: Гэнши-ди
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Car Gengshi od Hana
українська: Лю Сюань
Tiếng Việt: Hán Canh Thủy Đế
文言: 漢更始帝
吴语: 更始帝
粵語: 劉玄
中文: 更始帝