General practitioner

Consultation with a mobile health team doctor in Madagascar

In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.

A general practitioner manages types of illness that present in an undifferentiated way at an early stage of development, which may require urgent intervention.[1] The holistic approach of general practice aims to take into consideration the biological, psychological, and social factors relevant to the care of each patient's illness. Their duties are not confined to specific organs of the body, and they have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues. They are trained to treat patients of any age and sex to levels of complexity that vary between countries.

The role of a GP can vary greatly between (or even within) countries. In urban areas of developed countries, their roles tend to be narrower and focused on the care of chronic health problems; the treatment of acute non-life-threatening diseases; the early detection and referral to specialised care of patients with serious diseases; and preventive care including health education and immunisation. Meanwhile, in rural areas of developed countries or in developing countries, a GP may be routinely involved in pre-hospital emergency care, the delivery of babies, community hospital care and performing low-complexity surgical procedures.[2][3] In some healthcare systems GPs work in primary care centers where they play a central role in the healthcare team, while in other models of care GPs can work as single-handed practitioners.

The term general practitioner or GP is common in the UK, Republic of Ireland, and several Commonwealth countries. In these countries the word "physician" is largely reserved for certain other types of medical specialists, notably in internal medicine. While in these countries, the term GP has a clearly defined meaning, in North America the term has become somewhat ambiguous, and is not synonymous with the terms family doctor or primary care physician, as described below.

Historically, the role of a GP was once performed by any doctor qualified in a medical school working in the community. However, since the 1950s, general practice has become a specialty in its own right, with specific training requirements tailored to each country.[4][5][6] The Alma Ata Declaration in 1978 set the intellectual foundation of what primary care and general practice is nowadays.

Asia

India and Bangladesh

The basic medical degrees in India and Bangladesh are MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery), BAMS (Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery), BHMS (Bachelor of Homoeopathic Medicine and Surgery) and BUMS (Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery). These generally consist of a four-and-a-half-year course followed by a year of compulsory rotatory internship in India. In Bangladesh it is five years course followed by a year of compulsory rotatory internship. The internship requires the candidate to work in all departments for a stipulated period of time, to undergo hands-on training in treating patients.

The registration of doctors is usually managed by state medical councils. A permanent registration as a Registered Medical Practitioner is granted only after satisfactory completion of the compulsory internship.

The Federation of Family Physicians' Associations of India (FFPAI) is an organization which has a connection with more than 8000 general practitioners through having affiliated membership.[7]

Pakistan

In Pakistan, 5 years of MBBS is followed by one year of internship in different specialties. Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) then confers permanent registration, after which the candidate may choose to practice as a GP or opt for specialty training.

The first Family Medicine Training programme was approved by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan (CPSP) in 1992 and initiated in 1993 by the Family Medicine Division of the Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Pakistan.[8]

Family Medicine residency training programme of Ziauddin University is approved for Fellowship in Family Medicine.[9]

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