Gaul

Gaul on the eve of the Gallic Wars. Roman ethnography divides Gaul into five parts: Gallia Belgica, Gallia Celtica (largely corresponding to the later province Gallia Lugdunensis), Gallia Cisalpina, Gallia Narbonensis, and Gallia Aquitania.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia;[1] Greek: Γαλατία, Galatía) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi).[2] According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Belgica, and Aquitania.Archaeologically, the Gauls were bearers of the La Tène culture, which extended across all of Gaul, as well as east to Raetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and southwestern Germania during the 5th to 1st centuries BC.[citation needed]During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Julius Caesar finally subdued the remaining parts of Gaul in his campaigns of 58 to 51 BC.

Roman control of Gaul lasted for five centuries, until the last Roman rump state, the Domain of Soissons, fell to the Franks in AD 486. While the Celtic Gauls had lost their original identities and language during Late Antiquity, becoming amalgamated into a Gallo-Roman culture, Gallia remained the conventional name of the territory throughout the Early Middle Ages, until it acquired a new identity as the Capetian Kingdom of France in the high medieval period. Gallia remains a name of France in modern Greek (Γαλλία) and modern Latin (besides the alternatives Francia and Francogallia).

Name

The Greek and Latin names Galatia (first attested by Timaeus of Tauromenium in the 4th century BC) and Gallia are ultimately derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal(a)-to-.[3] The Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians (Γαλάται, Galátai) to the supposedly "milk-white" skin (γάλα, gála "milk") of the Gauls.[4] Modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu,[5] Cornish galloes,[6] "capacity, power",[7] thus meaning "powerful people".

The English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, despite superficial similarity. The name Gaul is derived from the Old Frankish *Walholant (via a Latinized form *Walula)[8] literally "Land of the Foreigners/Romans", in which *Walho- is reflex of Proto-Germanic *walhaz, "foreigner, Romanized person", an exonym applied by Germanic speakers to Celts and Latin-speaking people indiscriminately, making it cognate with the names Wales and Wallachia.[9] The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French (cf. guerre "war", garder "ward"), and the historic diphthong au is the regular outcome of al before a following consonant (cf. cheval ~ chevaux). French Gaule or Gaulle cannot be derived from Latin Gallia, since g would become j before a (cf. gamba > jambe), and the diphthong au would be unexplained; the regular outcome of Latin Gallia is Jaille in French, which is found in several western placenames, such as La Jaille-Yvon and Saint-Mars-la-Jaille.[10][11] Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae,[12]

Also unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the name Gael.[13] The Irish word gall did originally mean "a Gaul", i.e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was later widened to "foreigner", to describe the Vikings, and later still the Normans.[14] The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, for instance in the 12th-century book Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib.

As adjectives, English has the two variants: Gaulish and Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as "pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls", although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Gallië
Alemannisch: Gallien
Ænglisc: Gallia
العربية: بلاد الغال
aragonés: Galia
asturianu: Galia
azərbaycanca: Qalliya
تۆرکجه: گال
বাংলা: গল
Bân-lâm-gú: Gallia
беларуская: Галія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Галія
български: Галия
བོད་ཡིག: ཀའོ་ལུའུ།
bosanski: Galija
brezhoneg: Galia
català: Gàl·lia
Чӑвашла: Галли
čeština: Galie
Cymraeg: Gâl
dansk: Gallien
Deutsch: Gallien
eesti: Gallia
Ελληνικά: Γαλατία
español: Galia
Esperanto: Gaŭlio
euskara: Galia
français: Gaule
Frysk: Galje
Gaeilge: An Ghaill
galego: Galia
한국어: 갈리아
հայերեն: Գալլիա
हिन्दी: गॉल
Ido: Galia
Bahasa Indonesia: Galia
interlingua: Gallia
íslenska: Gallía
italiano: Gallia
עברית: גאליה
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಗಾಲ್
ქართული: გალია
қазақша: Галлия
Kiswahili: Gallia
kurdî: Galya
Кыргызча: Галлия
Ladino: Galia
Latina: Gallia
latviešu: Gallija
lietuvių: Galija
Limburgs: Gallië
lumbaart: Galia
magyar: Gallia
македонски: Галија
मराठी: गॉल
مصرى: الغال
Bahasa Melayu: Gaul
Nederlands: Gallië
日本語: ガリア
Napulitano: Gallia
Nordfriisk: Galien
norsk: Gallia
norsk nynorsk: Gallia
Novial: Gallia
occitan: Gàllia
پنجابی: گال
Picard: Gaule
Plattdüütsch: Gallien
polski: Galia
português: Gália
română: Galia
русский: Галлия
Scots: Gaul
sicilianu: Gallia
Simple English: Gaul
slovenčina: Galia
slovenščina: Galija
српски / srpski: Галија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Galija
suomi: Gallia
svenska: Gallien
ไทย: กอล
Türkçe: Galya
українська: Галлія
Tiếng Việt: Gallia
walon: Gåle
West-Vlams: Gallië
吴语: 高卢
粵語: 高盧
中文: 高卢