Fulgencio Batista

Fulgencio Batista
Fulgencio Batista, 1938.jpg
Batista in 1939.
9th and 12th President of Cuba
In office
10 March 1952 – 1 January 1959
Prime Minister
Vice President Rafael Guas Inclán
Preceded by Carlos Prío Socarrás
Succeeded by Anselmo Alliegro
In office
10 October 1940 – 10 October 1944
Prime Minister
Vice President Gustavo Cuervo Rubio
Preceded by Federico Laredo Brú
Succeeded by Ramón Grau
Cuban Senator
In office
2 June 1948 – 10 March 1952
Constituency Las Villas
Personal details
Born Rubén Zaldívar
January 16, 1901
Banes, Cuba
Died August 6, 1973 (aged 72)
Marbella, Andalusia, Spain
Political party
Spouse(s)
Children 8
Mother Carmela Zaldívar González
Father Belisario Batista Palermo
Other names Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (full name from 1939)
Military service
Allegiance Cuba Cuba
Service/branch Army
Years of service 1921–1940
Rank Colonel

Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (Spanish:  [fulˈxensjo βaˈtista i salˈdiβar]; born Rubén Zaldívar; [1] January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution. [2][ unreliable source?] Fulgencio Batista initially rose to power as part of the 1933 Revolt of the Sergeants that overthrew the provisional government of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada. He then appointed himself chief of the armed forces, with the rank of colonel, and effectively controlled the five-member Presidency. He maintained this control through a string of puppet presidents until 1940, when he was himself elected President of Cuba on a populist platform. [3] [4] He then instated the 1940 Constitution of Cuba, considered[ by whom?] progressive for its time, [5] and served until 1944. After finishing his term he lived in Florida, returning to Cuba to run for president in 1952. Facing certain electoral defeat, he led a military coup that preempted the election [6].

Back in power, and receiving financial, military, and logistical support from the United States government, [7] Batista suspended the 1940 Constitution and revoked most political liberties, including the right to strike.[ citation needed] He then aligned with the wealthiest landowners[ who?] who owned the largest sugar plantations, and presided over a stagnating economy that widened the gap between rich and poor Cubans. [8][ unreliable source?] Eventually it reached the point where most of the sugar industry was in U.S. hands, and foreigners owned 70% of the arable land. [9] As such, Batista's repressive[ weasel words] government then began to systematically[ weasel words] profit from the exploitation of Cuba's commercial interests, by negotiating lucrative relationships with both the American Mafia, who controlled the drug, gambling, and prostitution businesses in Havana, and with large U.S.-based multinational companies who were awarded lucrative[ weasel words] contracts. [8] [10][ unreliable source?] To quell the growing discontent amongst the populace—which was subsequently displayed through frequent student riots and demonstrations—Batista established tighter censorship of the media, while also utilizing his Bureau for the Repression of Communist Activities secret police to carry out wide-scale violence, torture and public executions; ultimately killing anywhere from hundreds to 20,000 people. [11][ unreliable source?] [12][ unreliable source?] [13] [14] [15] [16][ unreliable source?]

Catalyzing the resistance to such tactics, for two years (December 1956 – December 1958) Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement and other nationalist rebelling elements led an urban and rural-based guerrilla uprising against Batista's government, which culminated in his eventual defeat by rebels under the command of Che Guevara at the Battle of Santa Clara on New Year's Day 1959. Batista immediately fled the island with an amassed personal fortune to the Dominican Republic, where strongman and previous military ally Rafael Trujillo held power. Batista eventually found political asylum in Oliveira Salazar's Portugal, where he first lived on the island of Madeira and then in Estoril, outside Lisbon. He was involved in business activities in Spain and was staying there in Guadalmina near Marbella at the time of his death from a heart attack on August 6, 1973. [17]

Early life

A young Batista

Batista was born in the town of Veguita, located in the municipality of Banes, Cuba, province of Holguín, in 1901, to Belisario Batista Palermo [18] and Carmela Zaldívar González, who had fought in the Cuban War of Independence. He was of Spanish, African and Chinese descent. [19] [20] His mother named him Rubén and gave him her last name, Zaldívar. His father did not want to register him as a Batista. In the registration records of the Banes courthouse, he was legally Rubén Zaldívar until 1939, when, as Fulgencio Batista, he became a presidential candidate and it was discovered that this name did not exist in the birth certificates; he thus had to postpone the presentation of his candidacy and pay 15,000 pesos to the local judge. [1]

Both Batista's parents are believed to have been of mixed race, and one may have had indigenous Caribbean blood. [21] Batista was initially educated at a public school in Banes, and later attended night classes at an American Quaker school. [22] He left home at age 14, after the death of his mother. Coming from a humble background, he earned a living as a laborer in the cane fields, docks, and railroads. [23] He was a tailor, mechanic, charcoal vendor and fruit peddler. [23] In 1921, he traveled to Havana and joined the army as a private in April that year. [24] After learning shorthand and typing, Batista left the army in 1923, working briefly as a teacher of stenography before enlisting in the Guardia Rural (rural police). He transferred back to the army as a corporal, becoming secretary to a regimental colonel. [25] In September 1933, he held the rank of sergeant stenographer and as such acted as the secretary of a group of non-commissioned officers who led a "sergeant's conspiracy" for better conditions and improved prospects of promotion. [26]

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Fulgencio Batista
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фульхэнсіё Батыста
Bahasa Indonesia: Fulgencio Batista
Lëtzebuergesch: Fulgencio Batista
Bahasa Melayu: Fulgencio Batista
Nederlands: Fulgencio Batista
norsk nynorsk: Fulgencio Batista
português: Fulgencio Batista
Simple English: Fulgencio Batista
српски / srpski: Фулгенсио Батиста
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Fulgencio Batista
Tiếng Việt: Fulgencio Batista