Francis II of France

Francis II
FrancoisII.jpg
Portrait by François Clouet
King of France
Reign10 July 1559 – 5 December 1560
Coronation21 September 1559
PredecessorHenry II
SuccessorCharles IX
King consort of Scots
Tenure24 April 1558 – 5 December 1560
Born19 January 1544
Château de Fontainebleau, France
Died5 December 1560(1560-12-05) (aged 16)
Orléans, France
Burial23 December 1560
Basilica of St Denis, France
Spouse
HouseValois-Angoulême
FatherHenry II of France
MotherCatherine de' Medici
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Francis II (French: François II; 19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) was a King of France from 1559 to 1560. He was also King consort of Scotland as a result of his willing marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots, from 1558 until his death in 1560. Francis was the eleventh king from the House of Valois, the fourth from the Valois-Orléans branch, and the third from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch.

He ascended the throne of France at the age of fifteen after the accidental death of his father, Henry II, in 1559. His short reign was dominated by the first stirrings of the French Wars of Religion.

Although the royal age of majority had been set at fourteen, his mother, Catherine de' Medici, entrusted the reins of government to his wife's uncles from the House of Guise, staunch supporters of the Catholic cause. They were unable to help Catholics in Scotland against the progressing Scottish Reformation, however, and the Auld Alliance was dissolved.

Francis was succeeded by two of his brothers in turn, both of whom were also unable to reduce tensions between Protestants and Catholics.

Childhood and education (1544–1559)

Born eleven years after his parents' wedding, Francis was named for his grandfather, King Francis I and uncle. The long delay in producing an heir may have been due to his father's repudiation of his mother in favor of his mistress Diane de Poitiers,[1] however this repudiation was negated by Diane's insistence that Henry spend his nights with Catherine.[1] Francis was at first raised at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. He was baptized on 10 February 1544 at the Chapelle des Trinitaires in Fontainebleau. His godparents were Francis I (who knighted him during the ceremony), Pope Paul III, and his great-aunt Marguerite de Navarre. He became governor of Languedoc in 1546, and Dauphin of France in 1547, when his grandfather Francis I died.

Francis's governor and governess were Jean d'Humières and Françoise d'Humières, and his tutor was Pierre Danès, a Greek scholar originally from Naples. He learned dancing from Virgilio Bracesco and fencing from Hector of Mantua.

King Henry II, his father, arranged a remarkable betrothal for his son to Mary, Queen of Scots, in the Châtillon agreement of 27 January 1548, when Francis was only four years old. Mary had been crowned Queen of Scots in Stirling Castle on 9 September 1543 at the age of nine months following the death of her father James V. Besides being the queen of Scotland, Mary was a granddaughter of Claude, Duke of Guise, a very influential figure at the court of France. Once the marriage agreement was formally ratified, the six-year-old Mary was sent to France to be raised at court until the marriage. Although Mary was tall for her age and eloquent, her betrothed Francis was abnormally short and stuttered. Henry II commented that "from the very first day they met, my son and she got on as well together as if they had known each other for a long time".[2]

On 24 April 1558, the fourteen-year-old Dauphin married the Queen of Scots in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. It was a union that could have given the future kings of France the throne of Scotland and also a claim to the throne of England through Mary's great grandfather, King Henry VII of England. Until his death, Francis held the title King of Scotland. Mary and Francis were to have no children during their short marriage, however, possibly due to Francis' illnesses or his undescended testicles.[3]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: II Fransisk
Bân-lâm-gú: François 2-sè
беларуская: Францыск II
български: Франсоа II
հայերեն: Ֆրանցիսկ II
Bahasa Indonesia: François II dari Perancis
қазақша: Франциск II
lietuvių: Pranciškus II
македонски: Франсоа II
русский: Франциск II
Simple English: Francis II of France
slovenščina: Franc II. Francoski
српски / srpski: Франсоа II Валоа
Türkçe: II. François
Tiếng Việt: François II của Pháp