France

French Republic
République française (French)
Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem: "La Marseillaise"
"The Marsellaise"
Great Seal of France
Great Seal of the French Republic
Grand Sceau de la République française
EU-France (orthographic projection).svg
EU-France.svg
Location of  metropolitan France  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Location of the territory of the French Republic (red) Adélie Land (Antarctic claim; hatched)
  • Location of the territory of the French Republic (red)
  • Adélie Land (Antarctic claim; hatched)
Capital
and largest city
Paris
48°51′N 2°21′E / 48°51′N 2°21′E / 48.850; 2.350
Official language
and national language
French[I]
Nationality (2010)
Religion (2016)
DemonymFrench
GovernmentUnitary semi‑presidential republic
• President
Emmanuel Macron
Édouard Philippe
Gérard Larcher
Richard Ferrand
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembly
Establishment
• Baptism of Clovis I
25 December 496
August 843
22 September 1792
• Founded the EEC[III]
1 January 1958
4 October 1958
Area
• Total
640,679 km2 (247,368 sq mi)[3] (42nd)
551,695 km2 (213,011 sq mi)[V] (50th)
• Metropolitan France (Cadastre)
543,940.9 km2 (210,016.8 sq mi)[VI][4] (50th)
Population
• October 2018 estimate
Increase 67,348,000[5] (21st)
• Density
105/km2 (271/sq mi) (106th)
• Metropolitan France, estimate as of October 2018
Increase 65,167,000[6] (22nd)
• Density
116/km2 (300.4/sq mi) (89th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.960 trillion[7] (10th)
• Per capita
$45,473[7] (26th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.925 trillion[7] (7th)
• Per capita
$44,933[7] (22nd)
Gini (2013)30.1[8]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.901[9]
very high · 24th
Currency
Time zoneUTC+1 (Central European Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (Central European Summer Time[X])
Note: various other time zones are observed in overseas France.[IX]
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+33[XI]
ISO 3166 codeFR
Internet TLD.fr[XII]
Source gives area of metropolitan France as 551,500 km2 (212,900 sq mi) and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89,179 km2 (34,432 sq mi). Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi).

France (French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française; French pronunciation: ​[ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million (as of October 2018).[10] France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of France. France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world.[11] The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe's dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV.[12] In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, and saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day.

In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and typically retained close economic and military connections with France.

France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually.[13] France is a developed country with the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP,[14] and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity.[15] In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world.[16] France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development.[17][18] France is considered a great power in global affairs,[19] being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone,[20] and a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.

Etymology

Originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks".[21] Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" ("Frankish Empire") in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning.

There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm,[22] the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank (free) in English.[23] It has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.[24] Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca.[25] However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around.[26]

Other Languages
Acèh: Peurancih
Адыгэбзэ: Фрэндж
адыгабзэ: Францие
Afrikaans: Frankryk
Akan: France
Alemannisch: Frankreich
አማርኛ: ፈረንሣይ
Ænglisc: Francland
Аҧсшәа: Франциа
العربية: فرنسا
aragonés: Francia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܪܢܣܐ
armãneashti: Frânție
arpetan: France
অসমীয়া: ফ্ৰান্স
asturianu: Francia
Avañe'ẽ: Hyãsia
авар: Паранс
Aymar aru: Phransiya
azərbaycanca: Fransa
تۆرکجه: فرانسه
bamanankan: Faransi
বাংলা: ফ্রান্স
Bahasa Banjar: Parancis
Bân-lâm-gú: Hoat-kok
башҡортса: Франция
беларуская: Францыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Францыя
भोजपुरी: फ्रांस
Bikol Central: Pransya
Bislama: Franis
български: Франция
Boarisch: Frankreich
བོད་ཡིག: ཧྥ་རན་སི།
bosanski: Francuska
brezhoneg: Bro-C'hall
буряад: Франци
català: França
Чӑвашла: Франци
Cebuano: Pransiya
čeština: Francie
Chamoru: Francia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Francia
Chi-Chewa: France
chiShona: France
chiTumbuka: France
corsu: Francia
Cymraeg: Ffrainc
dansk: Frankrig
davvisámegiella: Frankriika
Deitsch: Frankreich
Deutsch: Frankreich
ދިވެހިބަސް: ފަރަންސޭސިވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Francojska
डोटेली: फ्रान्स
ཇོང་ཁ: ཕརཱནསི་
Ελληνικά: Γαλλία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Franza
español: Francia
Esperanto: Francio
estremeñu: Francia
euskara: Frantzia
eʋegbe: France
فارسی: فرانسه
Fiji Hindi: France
føroyskt: Frakland
français: France
Frysk: Frankryk
Fulfulde: Faransi
furlan: France
Gaeilge: An Fhrainc
Gaelg: Yn Rank
Gagauz: Franțiya
Gàidhlig: An Fhraing
galego: Francia
ГӀалгӀай: Франци
贛語: 法國
Gĩkũyũ: Baranja
ગુજરાતી: ફ્રાન્સ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: फ्रांस
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fap-koet
한국어: 프랑스
Hausa: Faransa
Hawaiʻi: Palani
հայերեն: Ֆրանսիա
हिन्दी: फ़्रान्स
hornjoserbsce: Francoska
hrvatski: Francuska
Ido: Francia
Igbo: France
Ilokano: Pransia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ফ্রান্স
Bahasa Indonesia: Perancis
interlingua: Francia
Interlingue: Francia
Ирон: Франц
isiZulu: IFulansi
íslenska: Frakkland
italiano: Francia
עברית: צרפת
Basa Jawa: Prancis
Kabɩyɛ: Fransɩɩ
kalaallisut: Franskit Nunaat
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್
Kapampangan: Pransiya
къарачай-малкъар: Франция
ქართული: საფრანგეთი
kaszëbsczi: Francëjô
қазақша: Франция
kernowek: Pow Frynk
Kinyarwanda: Ubufaransa
Kirundi: Ubufaransa
Kiswahili: Ufaransa
коми: Франция
Kongo: Fwalansa
Kreyòl ayisyen: Frans
kurdî: Fransa
Кыргызча: Франция
Ladino: Fransia
لۊری شومالی: فرانسأ
latgaļu: Praņceja
Latina: Francia
latviešu: Francija
Lëtzebuergesch: Frankräich
лезги: Франция
lietuvių: Prancūzija
Ligure: Fransa
Limburgs: Frankriek
lingála: Falansia
Lingua Franca Nova: Frans
Livvinkarjala: Frantsii
la .lojban.: fasygu'e
Luganda: Bufalansa
lumbaart: Frància
मैथिली: फ्रान्स
македонски: Франција
Malagasy: Frantsa
മലയാളം: ഫ്രാൻസ്
Malti: Franza
Māori: Wīwī
मराठी: फ्रान्स
მარგალური: საფრანგეთი
مصرى: فرنسا
مازِرونی: فرانسه
Bahasa Melayu: Perancis
Baso Minangkabau: Parancih
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Huák-guók
Mirandés: Fráncia
мокшень: Кранцмастор
монгол: Франц
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပြင်သစ်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Francia
Dorerin Naoero: Prant
Nederlands: Frankrijk
Nedersaksies: Frankriek
नेपाली: फ्रान्स
नेपाल भाषा: फ्रान्स
日本語: フランス
Napulitano: Franza
нохчийн: Франци
Nordfriisk: Frånkrik
Norfuk / Pitkern: France
norsk: Frankrike
norsk nynorsk: Frankrike
Nouormand: France
Novial: Fransia
occitan: França
олык марий: Франций
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଫ୍ରାନ୍ସ
Oromoo: Firaansi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fransiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਫ਼ਰਾਂਸ
पालि: फ्रांस
Pälzisch: Frankreich
Pangasinan: Fransia
پنجابی: فرانس
Papiamentu: Fransia
پښتو: فرانس
Patois: Frans
Перем Коми: Франс
ភាសាខ្មែរ: បារាំង
Picard: Franche
Piemontèis: Fransa
Tok Pisin: Frens
Plattdüütsch: Frankriek
polski: Francja
Ποντιακά: Γαλλία
português: França
Qaraqalpaqsha: Franciya
qırımtatarca: Frenkistan
reo tahiti: Farāni
Ripoarisch: Frankreich
română: Franța
Romani: Franchiya
rumantsch: Frantscha
Runa Simi: Ransiya
русиньскый: Франція
русский: Франция
саха тыла: Франция
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱯᱷᱨᱟᱱᱥ
Gagana Samoa: Farani
संस्कृतम्: फ्रान्सदेशः
Sängö: Farânzi
sardu: Frantza
Scots: Fraunce
Seeltersk: Frankriek
Sesotho: Fora
Sesotho sa Leboa: Fora
Setswana: Fora
shqip: Franca
sicilianu: Francia
සිංහල: ප්‍රංශය
Simple English: France
سنڌي: فرانس
SiSwati: IFulansi
slovenčina: Francúzsko
slovenščina: Francija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Франкїꙗ
ślůnski: Francyjŏ
Soomaaliga: Faransiiska
کوردی: فەڕەنسا
Sranantongo: Franskondre
српски / srpski: Француска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Francuska
Basa Sunda: Perancis
suomi: Ranska
svenska: Frankrike
Tagalog: Pransiya
தமிழ்: பிரான்சு
Taqbaylit: Fransa
tarandíne: Frange
татарча/tatarça: Франция
తెలుగు: ఫ్రాన్సు
tetun: Fransa
ትግርኛ: ፈረንሳይ
тоҷикӣ: Фаронса
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎦᎸᏥᏱ
Tsetsêhestâhese: France
Türkçe: Fransa
Türkmençe: Fransiýa
Twi: France
тыва дыл: Франция
удмурт: Франция
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Perancis
українська: Франція
اردو: فرانس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: فرانسىيە
Vahcuengh: Fazgoz
vèneto: Fransa
vepsän kel’: Francii
Tiếng Việt: Pháp
Volapük: Fransän
walon: France
文言: 法國
West-Vlams: Vrankryk
Winaray: Fransya
Wolof: Faraas
吴语: 法国
Xitsonga: Furhwa
ייִדיש: פראנקרייך
Yorùbá: Fránsì
粵語: 法國
Zazaki: Fransa
Zeêuws: Frankriek
žemaitėška: Prancūzėjė
中文: 法国