French Republic

République française (French)
Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem: "La Marseillaise"
EU-France (orthographic projection).svg
Location of metropolitan France (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Location of the territory of the French Republic (red) Adélie Land (Antarctic claim; hatched)
  • Location of the territory of the French Republic (red)
  • Adélie Land (Antarctic claim; hatched)
and largest city
48°51′N 2°21′E / 48°51′N 2°21′E / 48.850; 2.350
Official language
and national language
Nationality (2018)
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Emmanuel Macron
Édouard Philippe
Gérard Larcher
Richard Ferrand
National Assembly
• Baptism of Clovis I
25 December 496
August 843
22 September 1792
• Founded the EEC[III]
1 January 1958
4 October 1958
• Total
640,679 km2 (247,368 sq mi)[3] (42nd)
551,695 km2 (213,011 sq mi)[V] (50th)
• Metropolitan France (Cadastre)
543,940.9 km2 (210,016.8 sq mi)[VI][4] (50th)
• 2019 estimate
Increase 67,022,000[5] (21st)
• Density
104/km2 (270/sq mi) (106th)
• Metropolitan France, estimate as of 2019
Increase 64,834,000[6] (22nd)
• Density
116/km2 (300.4/sq mi) (89th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.061 trillion[7] (10th)
• Per capita
Increase $47,223[7] (26th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Decrease $2.707 trillion[7] (7th)
• Per capita
Decrease $41,761[7] (22nd)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 28.5[8]
HDI (2018)Decrease 0.891[9]
very high · 26th
Time zoneUTC+1 (Central European Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (Central European Summer Time[X])
Note: various other time zones are observed in overseas France.[IX]

Although France is located in Western European Time/UTC (Z) zone, since 25 February 1940, upon WW2 German occupation, Central European Time/[1] with a +0:50:39 offset (and +1:50:39 during DST) from Paris LMT (UTC+0:09:21).
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+33[XI]
ISO 3166 codeFR
Source gives area of metropolitan France as 551,500 km2 (212,900 sq mi) and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89,179 km2 (34,432 sq mi). Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi).

France (French: [fʁɑ̃s] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: République française, pronounced [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛːz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019).[10] France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice. France, including its overseas territories, has the most number of time zones of any country, with a total of 12.

During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, following its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world.[11] The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe's dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV.[12] In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of modern history's earliest republics and drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day.

In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (1803–15) shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, with most retaining close economic and military connections with France.

France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually.[13] France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP,[14] and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity.[15] In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world.[16] France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development.[17][18] France is considered a great power in global affairs,[19] being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone,[20] and a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.

Etymology and pronunciation

Originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or "country of the Franks".[21] Modern France is still named today Francia in Italian and Spanish, while Frankreich in German, Frankrijk in Dutch and Frankrike in Swedish all mean "Land/realm of the Franks".

There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm,[22] the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank (free) in English.[23] It has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.[24] Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word *frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca.[25] However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around.[26]

In English, 'France' is pronounced s/ FRANSS in American English and s/ FRAHNSS or s/ FRANSS in British English. The pronunciation with ɑː/ is mostly confined to accents with the trap-bath split such as Received Pronunciation, though it can be also heard in some other dialects such as Cardiff English, in which s/ is in free variation with s/.[27][28]

Other Languages
Acèh: Peurancih
Адыгэбзэ: Фрэндж
адыгабзэ: Францие
Afrikaans: Frankryk
Akan: France
Alemannisch: Frankreich
አማርኛ: ፈረንሣይ
Ænglisc: Francland
Аҧсшәа: Франциа
العربية: فرنسا
aragonés: Francia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܪܢܣܐ
armãneashti: Frânție
arpetan: France
অসমীয়া: ফ্ৰান্স
asturianu: Francia
Avañe'ẽ: Hyãsia
авар: Паранс
Aymar aru: Phransiya
azərbaycanca: Fransa
تۆرکجه: فرانسه
Bali: Perancis
bamanankan: Fàransi
বাংলা: ফ্রান্স
Banjar: Parancis
Bân-lâm-gú: Hoat-kok
башҡортса: Франция
беларуская: Францыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Францыя
भोजपुरी: फ्रांस
Bikol Central: Pransya
Bislama: Franis
български: Франция
Boarisch: Frankreich
བོད་ཡིག: ཧྥ་རན་སི།
bosanski: Francuska
brezhoneg: Bro-C'hall
буряад: Франци
català: França
Чӑвашла: Франци
Cebuano: Pransiya
čeština: Francie
Chamoru: Francia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Francia
Chi-Chewa: France
chiShona: France
chiTumbuka: France
corsu: Francia
Cymraeg: Ffrainc
dansk: Frankrig
davvisámegiella: Frankriika
Deitsch: Frankreich
Deutsch: Frankreich
ދިވެހިބަސް: ފަރަންސޭސިވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Francojska
डोटेली: फ्रान्स
ཇོང་ཁ: ཕརཱནསི་
Ελληνικά: Γαλλία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Franza
español: Francia
Esperanto: Francio
estremeñu: Francia
euskara: Frantzia
eʋegbe: France
فارسی: فرانسه
Fiji Hindi: France
føroyskt: Frakland
français: France
Frysk: Frankryk
Fulfulde: Faransi
furlan: France
Gaeilge: An Fhrainc
Gaelg: Yn Rank
Gagauz: Franțiya
Gàidhlig: An Fhraing
galego: Francia
ГӀалгӀай: Франци
贛語: 法國
Gĩkũyũ: Baranja
گیلکی: فرانسه
ગુજરાતી: ફ્રાન્સ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: फ्रांस
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fap-koet
한국어: 프랑스
Hausa: Faransa
Hawaiʻi: Palani
հայերեն: Ֆրանսիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Ֆրանսա
हिन्दी: फ़्रान्स
hornjoserbsce: Francoska
hrvatski: Francuska
Ido: Francia
Igbo: France
Ilokano: Pransia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ফ্রান্স
Bahasa Indonesia: Prancis
interlingua: Francia
Interlingue: Francia
Ирон: Франц
isiZulu: IFulansi
íslenska: Frakkland
italiano: Francia
עברית: צרפת
Jawa: Prancis
Kabɩyɛ: Fransɩɩ
kalaallisut: Franskit Nunaat
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್
Kapampangan: Pransiya
къарачай-малкъар: Франция
ქართული: საფრანგეთი
kaszëbsczi: Francëjô
қазақша: Франция
kernowek: Pow Frynk
Kinyarwanda: Ubufaransa
Kirundi: Ubufaransa
Kiswahili: Ufaransa
коми: Франция
Kongo: Fwalansa
Kreyòl ayisyen: Frans
kurdî: Fransa
Кыргызча: Франция
Ladino: Fransia
لۊری شومالی: فرانسٱ
latgaļu: Praņceja
Latina: Francia
latviešu: Francija
Lëtzebuergesch: Frankräich
лезги: Франция
lietuvių: Prancūzija
Ligure: Fransa
Limburgs: Frankriek
lingála: Falansia
Lingua Franca Nova: Frans
Livvinkarjala: Frantsii
la .lojban.: fasygu'e
Luganda: Bufalansa
lumbaart: Frància
मैथिली: फ्रान्स
македонски: Франција
Malagasy: Frantsa
മലയാളം: ഫ്രാൻസ്
Malti: Franza
Māori: Wīwī
मराठी: फ्रान्स
მარგალური: საფრანგეთი
مصرى: فرنسا
مازِرونی: فرانسه
Bahasa Melayu: Perancis
Minangkabau: Parancih
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Huák-guók
Mirandés: Fráncia
мокшень: Кранцмастор
монгол: Франц
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပြင်သစ်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Francia
Dorerin Naoero: Prant
Nederlands: Frankrijk
Nedersaksies: Frankriek
नेपाली: फ्रान्स
नेपाल भाषा: फ्रान्स
日本語: フランス
Napulitano: Franza
нохчийн: Франци
Nordfriisk: Frånkrik
Norfuk / Pitkern: Frans
norsk: Frankrike
norsk nynorsk: Frankrike
Nouormand: Fraunce
Novial: Fransia
occitan: França
олык марий: Франций
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଫ୍ରାନ୍ସ
Oromoo: Firaansi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fransiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਫ਼ਰਾਂਸ
पालि: फ्रांस
Pälzisch: Frankreich
Pangasinan: Fransia
پنجابی: فرانس
Papiamentu: Fransia
پښتو: فرانسه
Patois: Frans
Перем Коми: Франс
ភាសាខ្មែរ: បារាំង
Picard: Franche
Piemontèis: Fransa
Tok Pisin: Frens
Plattdüütsch: Frankriek
polski: Francja
Ποντιακά: Γαλλία
português: França
Qaraqalpaqsha: Franciya
qırımtatarca: Frenkistan
reo tahiti: Farāni
Ripoarisch: Frankreich
română: Franța
romani čhib: Franchiya
rumantsch: Frantscha
Runa Simi: Ransiya
русиньскый: Франція
русский: Франция
саха тыла: Быраансыйа
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱯᱷᱨᱟᱱᱥ
Gagana Samoa: Farani
संस्कृतम्: फ्रान्सदेशः
Sängö: Farânzi
sardu: Frantza
Scots: Fraunce
Seeltersk: Frankriek
Sesotho: Fora
Sesotho sa Leboa: Fora
Setswana: Fora
shqip: Franca
sicilianu: Francia
සිංහල: ප්‍රංශය
Simple English: France
سنڌي: فرانس
SiSwati: IFulansi
slovenčina: Francúzsko
slovenščina: Francija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Франкїꙗ
ślůnski: Francyjŏ
Soomaaliga: Faransiiska
کوردی: فەڕەنسا
Sranantongo: Franskondre
српски / srpski: Француска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Francuska
Sunda: Perancis
suomi: Ranska
svenska: Frankrike
Tagalog: Pransiya
தமிழ்: பிரான்சு
Taqbaylit: Fransa
tarandíne: Frange
татарча/tatarça: Франция
తెలుగు: ఫ్రాన్సు
tetun: Fransa
ትግርኛ: ፈረንሳይ
тоҷикӣ: Фаронса
Tsetsêhestâhese: France
Türkçe: Fransa
Türkmençe: Fransiýa
Twi: France
тыва дыл: Франция
удмурт: Франция
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Perancis
українська: Франція
اردو: فرانس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: فرانسىيە
Vahcuengh: Fazgoz
vèneto: Fransa
vepsän kel’: Francii
Tiếng Việt: Pháp
Volapük: Fransän
walon: France
文言: 法國
West-Vlams: Vrankryk
Winaray: Fransya
Wolof: Faraas
吴语: 法国
Xitsonga: Furhwa
ייִדיש: פראנקרייך
Yorùbá: Fránsì
粵語: 法國
Zazaki: Fransa
Zeêuws: Frankriek
žemaitėška: Prancūzėjė
中文: 法国
kriyòl gwiyannen: Lafrans
Sakizaya: France