By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major
Native American groups included the
Apalachee (of the
Florida Panhandle), the
Timucua (of northern and central Florida), the
Ais (of the central Atlantic coast), the
Tocobaga (of the
Tampa Bay area), the
Calusa (of southwest Florida) and the
Tequesta (of the southeastern coast).
Map of Florida, likely based on the expeditions of Hernando de Soto (1539-1543).
is the oldest city in Florida, established in 1565. The Spanish-Floridan color scheme of red and white is repeated throughout downtown.
Florida was the first part of the
continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish
Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513. He named the region La Florida ("land of flowers").
 The story that he was searching for the
Fountain of Youth is a myth.
"In May 1539, Conquistador
Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet (21 m), with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. Very soon, 'many smokes' appeared 'along the whole coast', billowing against the sky, when the Native ancestors of the Seminole spotted the newcomers and spread the alarm by signal fires".
 The Spanish introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Spanish language, and more to Florida.
 Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don
Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day
Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the Spanish settlement of
St. Augustine (San Agustín) was established under the leadership of admiral and governor
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, creating what would become the oldest European settlement in the continental U.S. and establishing the first generation of Floridanos and the
government of Florida.
 Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by
converting the local tribes to Christianity.
The area of
Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north and French claims to the west. The English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Spain built the
Castillo de San Marcos in 1672 and
Fort Matanzas in 1742 to defend Florida's capital city from attacks, and to maintain its strategic position in the defense of the
Captaincy General of Cuba and the
Spanish West Indies.
Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery. In 1738, Governor
Manuel de Montiano established
Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St. Augustine, a fortified town for escaped slaves to whom Montiano granted citizenship and freedom in return for their service in the Florida militia, and which became the first free black settlement legally sanctioned in North America.
1763, Spain traded Florida to the
Kingdom of Great Britain for control of
Havana, Cuba, which
had been captured by the British during the
Seven Years' War. It was part of a large expansion of British territory following
their victory in the Seven Years' War. A large portion of the Spanish Floridano population left, taking along most of the remaining indigenous population to Cuba.
 The British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to
Georgia. The road crossed the
St. Johns River at a narrow point, which the
Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British named "Cow Ford", both names ostensibly reflecting the fact that cattle were brought across the river there.
The British divided and consolidated the Florida provinces (Las Floridas) into
East Florida and
West Florida, a division the Spanish government kept after the brief British period.
 The British government gave land grants to officers and soldiers who had fought in the
French and Indian War in order to encourage settlement. In order to induce settlers to move to Florida, reports of its natural wealth were published in England. A large number of British settlers who were "energetic and of good character" moved to Florida, mostly coming from
Georgia and England. There was also a group of settlers who came from the colony of
Bermuda. This would be the first permanent English-speaking population in what is now
St. Johns County and
Nassau County. The British built good public roads and introduced the cultivation of sugar cane, indigo and fruits as well the export of lumber.
As a result of these initiatives northeastern Florida prospered economically in a way it never did under Spanish rule. Furthermore, the British governors were directed to call general assemblies as soon as possible in order to make laws for the Floridas and in the meantime they were, with the advice of councils, to establish courts. This would be the first introduction of much of the English-derived legal system which Florida still has today including
trial by jury,
habeas corpus and county-based government.
 Neither East Florida nor West Florida would send any representatives to Philadelphia to draft the Declaration of Independence. Florida would remain a Loyalist stronghold for the duration of the American Revolution.
Spain regained both East and West Florida after Britain's defeat in the American Revolution and the subsequent
Treaty of Versailles in 1783, and continued the provincial divisions until 1821.
Joining the United States; Indian removal
Defense of Florida's northern border with the United States was minor during the second Spanish period. The region became a haven for escaped slaves and a base for Indian attacks against U.S. territories, and the U.S. pressed Spain for reform.
English descent and Americans of
Scots-Irish descent began moving into northern Florida from the backwoods of
South Carolina. Though technically not allowed by the Spanish authorities, the Spanish were never able to effectively police the border region and the backwoods settlers from the United States would continue to migrate into Florida unchecked. These migrants, mixing with the already present British settlers who had remained in Florida since the British period, would be the progenitors of the population known as
These American settlers established a permanent foothold in the area and ignored Spanish officials. The British settlers who had remained also resented Spanish rule, leading to a rebellion in 1810 and the establishment for ninety days of the so-called Free and Independent Republic of
West Florida on September 23. After meetings beginning in June, rebels overcame the Spanish garrison at
Baton Rouge (now in
Louisiana), and unfurled the flag of the new republic: a single white star on a blue field. This flag would later become known as the "
Bonnie Blue Flag".
In 1810, parts of West Florida were annexed by proclamation of President
James Madison, who claimed the region as part of the
Louisiana Purchase. These parts were incorporated into the newly formed
Territory of Orleans. The U.S. annexed the Mobile District of West Florida to the
Mississippi Territory in 1812. Spain continued to dispute the area, though the United States gradually increased the area it occupied.
Seminole Indians based in
East Florida began raiding Georgia settlements, and offering havens for runaway slaves. The
United States Army led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory, including the 1817–1818 campaign against the Seminole Indians by
Andrew Jackson that became known as the
First Seminole War. The United States now effectively controlled East Florida. Control was necessary according to Secretary of State
John Quincy Adams because Florida had become "a derelict open to the occupancy of every enemy, civilized or savage, of the United States, and serving no other earthly purpose than as a post of annoyance to them.".
Florida had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or garrisons. Madrid therefore decided to cede the territory to the United States through the
Adams-Onís Treaty, which took effect in 1821.
James Monroe was authorized on March 3, 1821 to take possession of
East Florida and
West Florida for the United States and provide for initial governance.
Andrew Jackson, on behalf of the U.S. federal government, served as a military commissioner with the powers of governor of the newly acquired territory for a brief period.
 On March 30, 1822, the U.S. Congress merged
East Florida and part of
West Florida into the
By the early 1800s,
Indian removal was a significant issue throughout the southeastern U.S. and also in Florida. In 1830, the U.S. Congress passed the
Indian Removal Act and as settlement increased, pressure grew on the United States government to remove the Indians from Florida. Seminoles harbored runaway blacks, known as the
Black Seminoles, and clashes between whites and Indians grew with the influx of new settlers. In 1832, the
Treaty of Payne's Landing promised to the Seminoles lands west of the Mississippi River if they agreed to leave Florida. Many Seminole left at this time.
Some Seminoles remained, and the U.S. Army arrived in Florida, leading to the
Second Seminole War (1835–42). Following the war, approximately 3,000 Seminole and 800 Black Seminole were removed to
Indian Territory. A few hundred Seminole remained in Florida in the
On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state to join the United States of America.
 The state was admitted as a
slave state and ceased to be a sanctuary for runaway slaves. Initially its population grew slowly.
As European-American settlers continued to encroach on Seminole lands, and the United States intervened to move the remaining Seminoles to the West. The
Third Seminole War (1855–58) resulted in the
forced removal of most of the remaining Seminoles, although hundreds of Seminole Indians remained in the Everglades.
Slavery, war, and disenfranchisement
American settlers began to establish cotton
plantations in northern Florida, which required numerous laborers, which they supplied by buying slaves in the domestic market. By 1860 Florida had only 140,424 people, of whom 44% were enslaved. There were fewer than 1,000 free
African Americans before the American Civil War.
In January 1861, nearly all delegates in the Florida Legislature approved an ordinance of secession, declaring Florida to be "a sovereign and independent nation" — an apparent reassertion to the preamble in Florida's Constitution of 1838, in which Florida agreed with Congress to be a "Free and Independent State." Although not directly related to the issue of slavery, the ordinance declared Florida's secession from the
Union, allowing it to become one of the founding members of the
Confederate States, a looser union of states.
The confederal union received little help from Florida; the 15,000 men it offered were generally sent elsewhere. The largest engagements in the state were the
Battle of Olustee, on February 20, 1864, and the
Battle of Natural Bridge, on March 6, 1865. Both were Confederate victories.
 The war ended in 1865.
Following the American Civil War, Florida's
congressional representation was restored on June 25, 1868, albeit forcefully after
Radical Reconstruction and the installation of unelected government officials under the final authority of federal military commanders. After the
Reconstruction period ended in 1876, white Democrats regained power in the state legislature. In 1885 they created a new constitution, followed by statutes through 1889 that
disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites.
Until the mid-20th century, Florida was the least populous Southern state. In 1900 its population was only 528,542, of whom nearly 44% were African American, the same proportion as before the Civil War.
boll weevil devastated cotton crops.
Forty thousand blacks, roughly one-fifth of their 1900 population, left the state in the
Great Migration. They left due to lynchings and racial violence, and for better opportunities.
 Disfranchisement for most African Americans in the state persisted until the
Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s gained federal legislation in 1965 to enforce protection of their constitutional suffrage.
Historically, Florida's economy was based upon agricultural products such as cattle farming, sugarcane, citrus, tomatoes, and strawberries.
Economic prosperity in the 1920s stimulated tourism to Florida and related development of hotels and resort communities. Combined with its sudden elevation in profile was the
Florida land boom of the 1920s, which brought a brief period of intense land development. Devastating hurricanes in
1928, followed by the
Great Depression, brought that period to a halt. Florida's economy did not fully recover until the military buildup for
World War II.
The climate, tempered by the growing availability of
air conditioning, and low cost of living made the state a haven. Migration from the
Rust Belt and the Northeast sharply increased Florida's population after the war. In recent decades, more migrants have come for the jobs in a developing economy.
With a population of more than 18 million according to the 2010 census, Florida is the most populous state in the Southeastern United States, and the fourth most populous in the United States.