Fishing

Stilts fishermen, Sri Lanka
Fishing with nets, Mexico

Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms. The term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, and caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies. When bioblitzes occur, fish are typically caught, identified, and then released.

According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries.[1] In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.[2]

History

Stone Age fish hook made from bone

Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago.[3] Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish.[4][5] Archaeology features such as shell middens,[6] discarded fish bones, and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities.

Fishing in Africa is evident very early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC[7] to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, and spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets[8] to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities.

During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.

Trawling

The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than ever before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks that was occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon. The Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were also sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water. The great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of 'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'.[9]

Painting of A Brixham trawler by William Adolphus Knell. The painting is now in the National Maritime Museum.

This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Hull, Grimsby, Harwich and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.[9]

The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world[10] by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper.[11] It was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849. The dock covered 25 acres (10 ha) and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port.

The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world, influencing fishing fleets everywhere.[12] By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with almost 1,000 at Grimsby. These trawlers were sold to fishermen around Europe, including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet.[13]

The earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets. These were large boats, usually 80–90 feet (24–27 m) in length with a beam of around 20 feet (6.1 m). They weighed 40-50 tons and travelled at 9–11 knots (17–20 km/h; 10–13 mph). The earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built the first screw propelled steam trawler in the world.[14]

Steam trawlers were introduced at Grimsby and Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated that there were 20,000 men on the North Sea. The steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II.

In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen. The drum was a circular device that was set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been widely used. The first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Aberdeen, Scotland. The ship was much larger than any other trawlers then in operation and inaugurated the era of the 'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons.[15] The ship served as a basis for the expansion of 'super trawlers' around the world in the following decades.[15]

Recreational fishing

Izaak Walton's Compleat Angler, published in 1653 helped popularize fly fishing as a sport.
Woodcut by Louis Rhead

The early evolution of fishing as recreation is not clear. For example, there is anecdotal evidence for fly fishing in Japan, however, fly fishing was likely to have been a means of survival, rather than recreation. The earliest English essay on recreational fishing was published in 1496, by Dame Juliana Berners, the prioress of the Benedictine Sopwell Nunnery. The essay was titled Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle,[16] and included detailed information on fishing waters, the construction of rods and lines, and the use of natural baits and artificial flies.[17]

Recreational fishing took a great leap forward after the English Civil War, where a newly found interest in the activity left its mark on the many books and treatises that were written on the subject at the time. Compleat Angler was written by Izaak Walton in 1653 (although Walton continued to add to it for a quarter of a century) and described the fishing in the Derbyshire Wye. It was a celebration of the art and spirit of fishing in prose and verse. A second part to the book was added by Walton's friend Charles Cotton.[18]

Charles Kirby designed an improved fishing hook in 1655 that remains relatively unchanged to this day. He went on to invent the Kirby bend, a distinctive hook with an offset point, still commonly used today.[19]

Trading card of the Ustonson company, an early firm specializing in fishing equipment, and holder of a Royal Warrant from the 1760s.

The 18th century was mainly an era of consolidation of the techniques developed in the previous century. Running rings began to appear along the fishing rods, which gave anglers greater control over the cast line. The rods themselves were also becoming increasingly sophisticated and specialized for different roles. Jointed rods became common from the middle of the century and bamboo came to be used for the top section of the rod, giving it a much greater strength and flexibility.

The industry also became commercialized - rods and tackle were sold at the haberdashers store. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, artisans moved to Redditch which became a centre of production of fishing related products from the 1730s. Onesimus Ustonson established his shop in 1761, and his establishment remained as a market leader for the next century. He received a Royal Warrant from three successive monarchs starting with King George IV.[20] He also invented the multiplying winch. The commercialization of the industry came at a time of expanded interest in fishing as a recreational hobby for members of the aristocracy.[21]

The impact of the Industrial Revolution was first felt in the manufacture of fly lines. Instead of anglers twisting their own lines - a laborious and time-consuming process - the new textile spinning machines allowed for a variety of tapered lines to be easily manufactured and marketed.

British fly-fishing continued to develop in the 19th Century, with the emergence of fly fishing clubs, along with the appearance of several books on the subject of fly tying and fly fishing techniques.

By the mid to late 19th century, expanding leisure opportunities for the middle and lower classes began to have its effect on fly fishing, which steadily grew in mass appeal. The expansion of the railway network in Britain allowed the less affluent for the first time to take weekend trips to the seaside or to rivers for fishing. Richer hobbyists ventured further abroad.[22] The large rivers of Norway replete with large stocks of salmon began to attract fishers from England in large numbers in the middle of the century - Jones's guide to Norway, and salmon-fisher's pocket companion, published in 1848, was written by Frederic Tolfrey and was a popular guide to the country.[22]

'Nottingham' and 'Scarborough' reel designs.

Modern reel design had begun in England during the latter part of the 18th century, and the predominant model in use was known as the 'Nottingham reel'. The reel was a wide drum which spooled out freely, and was ideal for allowing the bait to drift along way out with the current. Geared multiplying reels never successfully caught on in Britain, but had more success in the United States, where similar models were modified by George Snyder of Kentucky into his bait-casting reel, the first American-made design in 1810.[23]

The material used for the rod itself changed from the heavy woods native to England, to lighter and more elastic varieties imported from abroad, especially from South America and the West Indies. Bamboo rods became the generally favoured option from the mid 19th century, and several strips of the material were cut from the cane, milled into shape, and then glued together to form light, strong, hexagonal rods with a solid core that were superior to anything that preceded them. George Cotton and his predecessors fished their flies with long rods, and light lines allowing the wind to do most of the work of getting the fly to the fish. [24]

Fishing became a popular recreational activity in the 19th century. Print from Currier and Ives.

Tackle design began to improve from the 1880s. The introduction of new woods to the manufacture of fly rods made it possible to cast flies into the wind on silk lines, instead of horse hair. These lines allowed for a much greater casting distance. However, these early fly lines proved troublesome as they had to be coated with various dressings to make them float and needed to be taken off the reel and dried every four hours or so to prevent them from becoming waterlogged. Another negative consequence was that it became easy for the much longer line to get into a tangle - this was called a 'tangle' in Britain, and a 'backlash' in the US. This problem spurred the invention of the regulator to evenly spool the line out and prevent tangling.[24]

The American, Charles F. Orvis, designed and distributed a novel reel and fly design in 1874, described by reel historian Jim Brown as the "benchmark of American reel design," and the first fully modern fly reel.[25][26]

Albert Illingworth, 1st Baron Illingworth a textiles magnate, patented the modern form of fixed-spool spinning reel in 1905. When casting Illingworth's reel design, the line was drawn off the leading edge of the spool, but was restrained and rewound by a line pickup, a device which orbits around the stationary spool. Because the line did not have to pull against a rotating spool, much lighter lures could be cast than with conventional reels.[24]

The development of inexpensive fiberglass rods, synthetic fly lines, and monofilament leaders in the early 1950s, that revived the popularity of fly fishing.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Visvang
Ænglisc: Fiscoþ
العربية: صيد الأسماك
aragonés: Pesca
asturianu: Pesca
Avañe'ẽ: Pirakutu
azərbaycanca: Balıqçılıq
تۆرکجه: بالیقچیلیق
Bahasa Banjar: Maunjun
български: Риболов
bosanski: Ribolov
brezhoneg: Peskerezh
català: Pesca
čeština: Rybolov
Cymraeg: Pysgota
eesti: Kalapüük
Ελληνικά: Αλιεία
español: Pesca
Esperanto: Fiŝkaptado
euskara: Arrantza
Gaeilge: Iascaireacht
Gàidhlig: Iasgach
galego: Pesca
ગુજરાતી: માછીમારી
한국어: 어로
hrvatski: Ribolov
Ido: Peskado
Bahasa Indonesia: Penangkapan ikan
íslenska: Fiskveiðar
עברית: דיג
Basa Jawa: Mancing
Kinyarwanda: Uburobyi
Kiswahili: Uvuvi
Latina: Piscatus
latviešu: Zvejošana
Lëtzebuergesch: Fëscherei
lietuvių: Žūklė
Limburgs: Vèsserij
magyar: Halászat
македонски: Риболов
Nāhuatl: Michmāliztli
Nederlands: Visserij
Nedersaksies: Visserieje
नेपाली: माछा पालन
日本語:
Napulitano: Pesca
norsk: Fiske
norsk nynorsk: Fiske
Nouormand: Pêque
occitan: Pesca
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Baliq ovlash
Picard: Péqueu
Plattdüütsch: Fischeree
português: Pesca
română: Pescuit
Runa Simi: Challwa hap'iy
русский: Рыбная ловля
саха тыла: Балыктааһын
Scots: Fishin
sicilianu: Pisca
Simple English: Fishing
slovenčina: Rybolov
slovenščina: Ribolov
کوردی: ڕاوەماسی
српски / srpski: Риболов
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ribolov
suomi: Kalastus
svenska: Fiske
Türkçe: Balıkçılık
українська: Рибальство
vepsän kel’: Kalatez
Tiếng Việt: Ngư nghiệp
walon: Pexhe
Winaray: Pangingisdâ
粵語: 捉魚
中文: 捕魚
Kabɩyɛ: Pɔɔ cɔlʋʋ