Fiqh (/; Arabic: فقه [fɪqh]) is Islamic jurisprudence. While sharia is believed by Muslims to represent divine law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad), fiqh is the human understanding of the sharia—sharia expanded and developed by interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran and Sunnah by Islamic jurists (ulama) and implemented by the rulings (fatwa) of jurists on questions presented to them. Thus conceptually, whereas sharia is considered immutable and infallible, fiqh is considered fallible and changeable. Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam. In the modern era, there are four prominent schools (madh'hab) of fiqh within Sunni practice, plus two (or three) within Shi'a practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a faqīh (plural fuqaha).
Figuratively, fiqh means knowledge about Islamic legal rulings from their sources. Thus the figurative definition of fiqh is taken from its literal one in the sense that deriving religious rulings from their sources necessitates the mujtahid (an individual who exercises ijtihad) to have a deep understanding in the different discussions of jurisprudence. A faqīh must look deep down into a matter and not suffice himself with just the apparent meaning, and a person who only knows the appearance of a matter is not qualified as a faqīh.
On the studies of fiqh, it is traditionally divided into Uṣūl al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence, lit. the roots of fiqh), the methods of legal interpretation and analysis, and Furūʿ al-fiqh (lit. the branches of fiqh), the elaboration of rulings on the basis of these principles. Furūʿ al-fiqh is the product of the application of Uṣūl al-fiqh and the total product of human efforts at understanding the divine will. A hukm (plural aḥkām) is a particular ruling in a given case.