Fiqh

Fiqh
Arabicفقه
RomanizationFiqh
Literal meaning"deep understanding"
"full comprehension"

Fiqh (k/; Arabic: فقه[fɪqh]) is Islamic jurisprudence.[1] Fiqh is often described as the human understanding of the sharia,[2] that is human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad). Fiqh expands and developes Shariah through interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran and Sunnah by Islamic jurists (ulama)[2] and is implemented by the rulings (fatwa) of jurists on questions presented to them. Thus, whereas sharia is considered immutable and infallible by Muslims, fiqh is considered fallible and changeable. Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam. In the modern era, there are four prominent schools (madh'hab) of fiqh within Sunni practice, plus two (or three) within Shi'a practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a faqīh (plural fuqaha).[3]

Figuratively, fiqh means knowledge about Islamic legal rulings from their sources and deriving religious rulings from their sources necessitates the mujtahid (an individual who exercises ijtihad) to have a deep understanding in the different discussions of jurisprudence. A faqīh must look deep down into a matter and not suffice himself with just the apparent meaning, and a person who only knows the appearance of a matter is not qualified as a faqīh.[1]

The studies of fiqh, are traditionally divided into Uṣūl al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence, lit. the roots of fiqh), the methods of legal interpretation and analysis; and Furūʿ al-fiqh (lit. the branches of fiqh), the elaboration of rulings on the basis of these principles.[4][5] Furūʿ al-fiqh is the product of the application of Uṣūl al-fiqh and the total product of human efforts at understanding the divine will. A hukm (plural aḥkām) is a particular ruling in a given case.

Etymology

The word fiqh is an Arabic term meaning "deep understanding"[6]:470 or "full comprehension". Technically it refers to the body of Islamic law extracted from detailed Islamic sources (which are studied in the principles of Islamic jurisprudence) and the process of gaining knowledge of Islam through jurisprudence. The historian Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh as "knowledge of the rules of God which concern the actions of persons who own themselves connected to obey the law respecting what is required (wajib), sinful (haraam), recommended (mandūb), disapproved (makrūh) or neutral (mubah)".[7] This definition is consistent amongst the jurists.

In Modern Standard Arabic, fiqh has come to mean jurisprudence in general, be it Islamic or secular. It is thus possible to speak of Chief Justice John Roberts as an expert in the common law fiqh of the United States, or of Egyptian legal scholar Abd El-Razzak El-Sanhuri as an expert in the civil law fiqh of Egypt.

Other Languages
Acèh: Fiqah
Afrikaans: Fikh
العربية: فقه إسلامي
asturianu: Fiqh
azərbaycanca: Fiqh
تۆرکجه: فیقه
বাংলা: ফিকহ
български: Фикх
bosanski: Fikh
català: Fiqh
čeština: Fiqh
dansk: Fiqh
Deutsch: Fiqh
ދިވެހިބަސް: ފިޤްހު
Ελληνικά: Φικχ
español: Fiqh
Esperanto: Fikho
euskara: Fiqh
فارسی: فقه
한국어: 피끄흐
हिन्दी: फ़िक़्ह
Bahasa Indonesia: Fikih
italiano: Fiqh
עברית: פיקה
Basa Jawa: Fiqih
ქართული: ფიყჰი
қазақша: Фиқһ
Kiswahili: Fiqhi
kurdî: Fiqih
лакку: Фикьгьи
latviešu: Fikhs
lietuvių: Fikh
magyar: Fikh
മലയാളം: ഫിഖ്‌ഹ്
Bahasa Melayu: Fiqah
Nederlands: Fikh
norsk: Fiqh
occitan: Fiqh
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fiqh
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਫ਼ਿਕਾ
پښتو: فقه
polski: Fikh
português: Fiqh
русский: Фикх
Scots: Fiqh
shqip: Fikh-u
සිංහල: ෆිඛ්
Simple English: Fiqh
سنڌي: فقه
slovenščina: Fiqh
српски / srpski: Фикх
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Fikh
Basa Sunda: Fiqih
suomi: Fiqh
svenska: Fiqh
Tagalog: Fiqh
татарча/tatarça: Фикһ
తెలుగు: ఫిఖహ్
тоҷикӣ: Фиқҳ
Türkçe: Fıkıh
українська: Фікг
اردو: فقہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: فىقھ
吴语: 回教法学
粵語: 回教法學
Zazaki: Fıqıh