Federal republic

A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.[1] At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen".

In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a unitary republic, whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. This more decentralized structure helps to explain the tendency for more populous countries to operate as federal republics.[2] Most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written constitutional document.

The political differences between a federal republic and other federal states, especially federal monarchies under a parliamentary system of government, are largely a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice with checks and balances. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy.


Federal state Official name and style Subdivisions Head of state
 Argentina Argentine Republic Provinces and one autonomous city President
 Austria[3] Republic of Austria States President
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[4] Bosnia and Herzegovina Entities, cantons and one federal district Collective presidency
 Brazil[5] Federative Republic of Brazil Municipalities, states and one federal district[6] President
 Comoros Union of the Comoros Islands President
 Ethiopia[7] Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Regions President
 Germany[8] Federal Republic of Germany States President
 India[9] Republic of India States and union territories President
 Iraq Republic of Iraq Governorates President
 Mexico[10] United Mexican States States and one autonomous entity President
 Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia States President
   Nepal[11] Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Provinces President
 Nigeria[12] Federal Republic of Nigeria States and one federal territory President
 Pakistan[13] Islamic Republic of Pakistan Provinces, autonomous territories and federal territory President
 Russia[14] Russian Federation Federal subjects President
 Somalia Federal Republic of Somalia Federal member states President
 South Sudan Republic of South Sudan States President
 Sudan Republic of the Sudan States President
  Switzerland[15] Swiss Confederation Cantons Federal council
 United States[16] United States of America 50 states, one federal district and several territories President
 Venezuela[17] Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela States, one capital district and federal dependencies President
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