Führerbunker

Führerbunker
Führer's bunker
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-V04744, Berlin, Garten der zerstörte Reichskanzlei.jpg
July 1947 photo of the rear entrance to the Führerbunker in the garden of the Reich Chancellery. Hitler and Eva Braun were cremated in a shell hole in front of the emergency exit at left; the cone-shaped structure in the centre served as the exhaust, and as a bomb shelter for the guards.[1]
Führerbunker is located in Central Berlin
Führerbunker
General information
Town or cityBerlin
CountryNazi Germany
Coordinates52°30′45″N 13°22′53″E / 52°30′45″N 13°22′53″E / 52.5125; 13.38151943
Completed23 October 1944
Destroyed5 December 1947
Cost1.35 million Reichsmarks
OwnerNazi Germany
Design and construction
ArchitectAlbert Speer, Karl Piepenburg
Architecture firmHochtief AG
3D model of New Reichs Chancellery with location of bunker complex in red
3D model of Führerbunker (left) and Vorbunker (right)

The Führerbunker (German pronunciation: [ˈfyːʁɐˌbʊŋkɐ]) was an air raid shelter located near the Reich Chancellery in Berlin, Germany. It was part of a subterranean bunker complex constructed in two phases in 1936 and 1944. It was the last of the Führer Headquarters (Führerhauptquartiere) used by Adolf Hitler during World War II.

Hitler took up residence in the Führerbunker on 16 January 1945, and it became the centre of the Nazi regime until the last week of World War II in Europe. Hitler married Eva Braun there during the last week of April 1945, shortly before they committed suicide.

After the war, both the old and new Chancellery buildings were levelled by the Soviets. The underground complex remained largely undisturbed until 1988–89, despite some attempts at demolition. The excavated sections of the old bunker complex were mostly destroyed during reconstruction of that area of Berlin. The site remained unmarked until 2006, when a small plaque was installed with a schematic diagram. Some corridors of the bunker still exist but are sealed off from the public.

Construction

The Reich Chancellery bunker was initially constructed as a temporary air-raid shelter for Hitler (who actually spent very little time in the capital during most of the war). Increased bombing of Berlin led to expansion of the complex as an improvised permanent shelter. The elaborate complex consisted of two separate shelters, the Vorbunker ("forward bunker"; the upper bunker), completed in 1936, and the Führerbunker, located 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) lower than the Vorbunker and to the west-southwest, completed in 1944.[2][3] They were connected by a stairway set at right angles and could be closed off from each other by a bulkhead and steel door.[4] The Vorbunker was located 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) beneath the cellar of a large reception hall behind the old Reich Chancellery at Wilhelmstrasse 77.[5] The Führerbunker was located about 8.5 metres (28 ft) beneath the garden of the old Reich Chancellery, 120 metres (390 ft) north of the new Reich Chancellery building at Voßstraße 6.[6] Besides being deeper under ground, the Führerbunker had significantly more reinforcement. Its roof was made of concrete almost 3 metres (9.8 ft) thick.[7] About 30 small rooms were protected by approximately 4 metres (13 ft) of concrete; exits led into the main buildings, as well as an emergency exit up to the garden. The Führerbunker development was built by the Hochtief company as part of an extensive program of subterranean construction in Berlin begun in 1940.[8]

Hitler's accommodations were in this newer, lower section, and by February 1945 it had been decorated with high-quality furniture taken from the Chancellery, along with several framed oil paintings.[9] After descending the stairs into the lower section and passing through the steel door, there was a long corridor with a series of rooms on each side.[10] On the right side were a series of rooms which included generator/ventilation rooms and the telephone switchboard.[10] On the left side was Eva Braun's bedroom/sitting room (also known as Hitler's private guest room), an ante-chamber (also known as Hitler's sitting room), which led into Hitler's study/office.[11][12] On the wall hung a large portrait of Frederick the Great, one of Hitler's heroes.[13] A door led into Hitler's modestly furnished bedroom.[12] Next to it was the conference/map room (also known as the briefing/situation room) which had a door that led out into the waiting room/ante-room.[11][12]

The bunker complex was self-contained.[14] However, as the Führerbunker was below the water table, conditions were unpleasantly damp, with pumps running continuously to remove groundwater. A diesel generator provided electricity, and well water was pumped in as the water supply.[15] Communications systems included a telex, a telephone switchboard, and an army radio set with an outdoor antenna. As conditions deteriorated at the end of the war, Hitler received much of his war news from BBC radio broadcasts and via courier.[16]

Other Languages
العربية: قبو الفوهرر
asturianu: Führerbunker
azərbaycanca: Fürerbunker
беларуская: Фюрарбункер
български: Фюрербункер
brezhoneg: Führerbunker
català: Führerbunker
čeština: Vůdcův bunkr
Deutsch: Führerbunker
español: Führerbunker
euskara: Führerbunker
فارسی: فورربونکر
français: Führerbunker
한국어: 총통엄폐호
Bahasa Indonesia: Führerbunker
italiano: Führerbunker
latviešu: Fīrera bunkurs
македонски: Фирербункер
Bahasa Melayu: Führerbunker
Nederlands: Führerbunker
日本語: 総統地下壕
português: Führerbunker
română: Führerbunker
русский: Фюрербункер
Simple English: Führerbunker
Türkçe: Führerbunker
українська: Фюрербункер
中文: 元首地堡