Europe

Europe
Europe orthographic Caucasus Urals boundary (with borders).svg
Area10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi)  (6th)[a]
Population741,447,158 (2016; 3rd)[1]
Population density72.9/km2 (188/sq mi) (2nd)
GDP (nominal)$22.9 trillion (2018; 3rd)[2]
GDP (PPP)$26.7 trillion (2017; 2nd)[3]
GDP per capita$30,930 (2018; 3rd)[4]
HDIIncrease 0.845[5]
DemonymEuropean
Countries50 sovereign states
6 with limited recognition
Dependencies6 dependencies
LanguagesMost common first languages:
Time zonesUTC−1 to UTC+5
Largest citiesLargest urban areas:
  • a. ^ Figures include only European portions of transcontinental countries.[n]
  • b. ^ Istanbul is a transcontinental city with about two-thirds of the population residing in the European side.

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Since around 1850, Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[7] Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey, Russia and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries.

Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 Million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016.[1] The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.

Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization.[8][9][10] The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. From the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas, almost all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.

The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence.[11] During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.

In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union (EU), a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.[12] The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU's Schengen Area abolishes border and immigration controls among most of its member states. The European Anthem is "Ode to Joy", and states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.

Name

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
Reconstruction of Herodotus' world map (450 BC)

In classical Greek mythology, Europa (Ancient Greek: Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē) is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς (eurús), "wide, broad"[13] and ὤψ (ōps, gen. ὠπός, ōpós) "eye, face, countenance",[14] hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.[15] For the second part compare also the divine attributes of "grey-eyed" Athena (γλαυκῶπις, glaukōpis) or ox-eyed Hera (βοῶπις, boōpis).

There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" (said of the sun) or Phoenician 'ereb "evening, west",[16] which is at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, [the country of] sunset", in opposition to Asu "[the country of] sunrise", i.e. Asia. The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή (Anatolḗ "[sun] rise", "east", hence Anatolia).[17] Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor."[18] Next to these hypotheses there is also a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which also produced Greek Erebus.

Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu (歐洲/欧洲); a similar Chinese-derived term Ōshū (欧州) is also sometimes used in Japanese such as in the Japanese name of the European Union, Ōshū Rengō (欧州連合), despite the katakana Yōroppa (ヨーロッパ) being more commonly used. In some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan ("land of the Franks") is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa.[19]

Other Languages
Acèh: Iërupa
Адыгэбзэ: Еуропэ
адыгабзэ: Еуропэ
Afrikaans: Europa
Akan: Yurop
Alemannisch: Europa
አማርኛ: አውሮፓ
Ænglisc: Europe
Аҧсшәа: Европа
العربية: أوروبا
aragonés: Europa
armãneashti: Europa
arpetan: Eropa
অসমীয়া: ইউৰোপ
asturianu: Europa
Avañe'ẽ: Európa
авар: Европ
Aymar aru: Iwrupa
azərbaycanca: Avropa
تۆرکجه: اوروپا
bamanankan: Eropa
বাংলা: ইউরোপ
Bahasa Banjar: Irupa
Bân-lâm-gú: Au-chiu
Basa Banyumasan: Eropah
башҡортса: Европа
беларуская: Еўропа
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Эўропа
भोजपुरी: यूरोप
Bikol Central: Europa
Bislama: Yurop
български: Европа
Boarisch: Eiropa
bosanski: Evropa
буряад: Европо
català: Europa
Чӑвашла: Европа
Cebuano: Uropa
čeština: Evropa
Chamoru: Europa
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Europa
Chi-Chewa: Europe
chiShona: Europe
chiTumbuka: Europe
corsu: Europa
Cymraeg: Ewrop
dansk: Europa
davvisámegiella: Eurohpá
Deitsch: Eiropaa
Deutsch: Europa
dolnoserbski: Europa
eesti: Euroopa
Ελληνικά: Ευρώπη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Európa
español: Europa
Esperanto: Eŭropo
estremeñu: Uropa
euskara: Europa
eʋegbe: Europa
فارسی: اروپا
Fiji Hindi: Europe
føroyskt: Evropa
français: Europe
Frysk: Jeropa
Fulfulde: Yuroopu
furlan: Europe
Gaeilge: An Eoraip
Gaelg: Yn Oarpey
Gagauz: Evropa
Gàidhlig: An Roinn-Eòrpa
galego: Europa
贛語: 歐洲
گیلکی: اۊرۊپا
ગુજરાતી: યુરોપ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌰𐌹𐍅𐍂𐍉𐍀𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: युरोप
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Êu-chû
хальмг: Европ
한국어: 유럽
Hausa: Turai
Hawaiʻi: ‘Eulopa
հայերեն: Եվրոպա
हिन्दी: यूरोप
hornjoserbsce: Europa
hrvatski: Europa
Ido: Europa
Ilokano: Europa
Bahasa Indonesia: Eropa
interlingua: Europa
Interlingue: Europa
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᐆᕌᑉ
Ирон: Европæ
isiXhosa: IYurophu
isiZulu: IYurophu
íslenska: Evrópa
italiano: Europa
עברית: אירופה
Basa Jawa: Éropah
kalaallisut: Europa
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಯುರೋಪ್
Kapampangan: Europa
къарачай-малкъар: Европа
ქართული: ევროპა
kaszëbsczi: Eùropa
қазақша: Еуропа
kernowek: Europa
Kinyarwanda: Burayi
Kiswahili: Ulaya
коми: Европа
Kongo: Mputu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ewòp
kurdî: Ewropa
Кыргызча: Европа
кырык мары: Европа
Ladino: Evropa
лакку: Европа
лезги: Европа
لۊری شومالی: اورۊپا
latgaļu: Europa
Latina: Europa
latviešu: Eiropa
Lëtzebuergesch: Europa (Kontinent)
lietuvių: Europa
Ligure: Euròpa
Limburgs: Europa
lingála: Erópa
Livvinkarjala: Jevrouppu
la .lojban.: rontu'a
Luganda: Bulaaya
lumbaart: Europa
magyar: Európa
मैथिली: युरोप
македонски: Европа
Malagasy: Eoropa
മലയാളം: യൂറോപ്പ്
Malti: Ewropa
Māori: Ūropi
मराठी: युरोप
მარგალური: ევროპა
مصرى: اوروبا
مازِرونی: اوروپا قاره
Bahasa Melayu: Eropah
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ĕu-ciŭ
Mirandés: Ouropa
монгол: Европ
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဥရောပ
Nāhuatl: Europan
Dorerin Naoero: Iurop
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Vavalagi
Nedersaksies: Europa (werelddeel)
नेपाली: युरोप
नेपाल भाषा: युरोप
日本語: ヨーロッパ
Napulitano: Europa
нохчийн: Европа
Nordfriisk: Euroopa
Norfuk / Pitkern: Urup
norsk: Europa
norsk nynorsk: Europa
Nouormand: Ûrope
Novial: Europa
occitan: Euròpa
олык марий: Европа
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ୟୁରୋପ
Oromoo: Yuurooppi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yevropa
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਯੂਰਪ
Pälzisch: Europa
Pangasinan: Europe
پنجابی: یورپ
Papiamentu: Oropa
پښتو: اروپا
Patois: Yuurop
Перем Коми: Европа
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ទ្វីបអឺរ៉ុប
Picard: Urope
Piemontèis: Euròpa
Tok Pisin: Yurop
Plattdüütsch: Europa
polski: Europa
Ποντιακά: Ευρώπην
português: Europa
Qaraqalpaqsha: Evropa
qırımtatarca: Avropa
reo tahiti: ’Europa
Ripoarisch: Europa
română: Europa
Romani: Europa
rumantsch: Europa
Runa Simi: Iwrupa
русиньскый: Европа
русский: Европа
саха тыла: Эуропа
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱤᱭᱩᱨᱚᱯ
Gagana Samoa: Europa
संस्कृतम्: यूरोपखण्डः
Sängö: Aêropa
sardu: Europa
Scots: Europe
Seeltersk: Europa
Sesotho: Uropa
Sesotho sa Leboa: Europa
shqip: Evropa
sicilianu: Europa
සිංහල: යුරෝපය
Simple English: Europe
سنڌي: يُورَپ
SiSwati: IYurophu
slovenčina: Európa
slovenščina: Evropa
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Єѵрѡпа
ślůnski: Ojropa
Soomaaliga: Yurub
کوردی: ئەورووپا
Sranantongo: Ropa
српски / srpski: Европа
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Evropa
Basa Sunda: Éropa
suomi: Eurooppa
svenska: Europa
Tagalog: Europa
தமிழ்: ஐரோப்பா
Taqbaylit: Turuft
tarandíne: Europe
татарча/tatarça: Аурупа
తెలుగు: ఐరోపా
tetun: Europa
ትግርኛ: ኣውሮጳ
тоҷикӣ: Аврупо
lea faka-Tonga: ʻEulope
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏳᎳᏛ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Hóxovê-hooma
ತುಳು: ಯುರೋಪ್
Türkçe: Avrupa
Türkmençe: Ýewropa
тыва дыл: Европа
удмурт: Европа
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Eropah
українська: Європа
اردو: یورپ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ياۋروپا
Vahcuengh: Ouhcouh
vèneto: Eoropa
vepsän kel’: Evrop
Tiếng Việt: Châu Âu
Volapük: Yurop
Võro: Õuruupa
walon: Urope
文言: 歐羅巴洲
West-Vlams: Europa
Winaray: Europa
Wolof: Tugal
吴语: 欧洲
Xitsonga: Yuropa
ייִדיש: אייראפע
Yorùbá: Europe
粵語: 歐洲
Zazaki: Ewropa
Zeêuws: Europa
žemaitėška: Euruopa
中文: 欧洲
डोटेली: युरोप
ГӀалгӀай: Европа
Lingua Franca Nova: Europa