Euchre

Euchre
Euchre.jpg
A perfect lone hand for spades trump
OriginEurope, Canada, South Africa, Australia
TypeTrick-taking
Players4
Skills requiredMemory, Tactics
Cards24-32
DeckFrench
PlayClockwise
Card rank (highest first)J (of trump suit) J (of same colour) A K Q 10 9, sometimes 8 7
Playing time25 min.
Random chanceMedium[citation needed]
Related games
500, Juckerspiel, Skat, Clabber

Euchre ər/ or eucre is a trick-taking card game most commonly played with four people in two partnerships with a deck of 24, 28, or sometimes 32, standard playing cards. It is the game responsible for introducing the joker into modern packs; this was invented around 1860 to act as a top trump or best Bower (from the German word Bauer, "farmer", denoting also the Jack - see Bester Bube).[1] It is believed to be closely related to the French game Écarté that was popularized in the United States by the Cornish and Pennsylvania Dutch,[2] and to the seventeenth-century game of bad repute Loo. It may be sometimes referred to as Knock Euchre to distinguish it from Bid Euchre.

Origins

"Euchered"; lithograph (1884) from the Library of Congress

Euchre appears to have been introduced into the United States by the early German settlers of Pennsylvania,[3] and from that region gradually to have been disseminated throughout the nation. It has been more recently theorized that the game and its name derives from an eighteenth-century Alsatian card game named Juckerspiel,[4] a derivative of Triomphe. Also, it may have been introduced by immigrants from Cornwall, UK, where it remains a popular game. It is also played in the neighbouring county of Devon; one theory is that it was introduced by French or American prisoners of war imprisoned in Dartmoor prison during the early 19th century. Ombre is an ancestral form of Euchre.[5]

In the United States the only teaching of the game, except a few paragraphs in the late American editions of Hoyle's Games, and of Bonn's New Hand-Book of Games, is contained in The Game of Euchre; with its Laws, 32mo., Philadelphia, 1850, pp. 32, attributed to a late learned jurist.[6]

The game has declined in popularity since the 19th century, when it was widely regarded as the national card game, but it retains a strong following in some regions like the Midwest; especially the states of Indiana, Iowa, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Missouri, Hilton Head Island, Garfield Estates, and Wisconsin.[7] It is played differently from region to region and even within regions. In Canada, the game is still very popular in Ontario and is commonly seen as a drinking game with tournaments often held by bars and community centres. The United Kingdom, the Channel Islands, Australia and New Zealand all have large followings of the game.

Other Languages
dansk: Euchre
Deutsch: Euchre
日本語: ユーカー
polski: Juker
svenska: Euchre