Etruscan numerals |
East Asian |
---|
Alphabetic |
Former |
The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient
Etruscan numerals include the following symbols:
Etruscan | Arabic | Symbol * | |
---|---|---|---|
θu | 𐌠 | ||
maχ | 𐌡 | ||
śar | 𐌢 | ||
muvalχ | 𐌣 | ||
? | or C | 𐌟 |
There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals. Examples are known of the symbols for larger numbers, but it is unknown which symbol represents which number.
Thanks to the numbers written out on the Tuscania dice, there is agreement that zal, ci, huθ and śa are the numbers up to six (besides 1 and 5). The assignment depends on whether the numbers on opposite faces of Etruscan dice add up to seven, like nowadays. Some dice found did not show this proposed pattern.
An aspect of the Etruscan
The general agreement among Etruscologists nowadays is the following (except about which of huθ and śa were "four" or "six", which has always been under discussion; see below the new results):
Etruscan | Arabic |
---|---|
θu | 1 |
zal | 2 |
ci | 3 |
huθ | 4 |
maχ | 5 |
śa | 6 |
semφ | 7 |
*cezp | 8 |
nurφ | 9 |
śar | 10 |
*θuśar | 11 |
*zalśar | 12 |
*ciśar | 13 |
huθzar | 14 |
*maχśar | 15 |
*śaśar | 16 |
ciem zaθrum | 17 |
eslem zaθrum | 18 |
θunem zaθrum | 19 |
zaθrum | 20 |
cealχ | 30 |
*huθalχ | 40 |
muvalχ | 50 |
śealχ | 60 |
semφalχ | 70 |
cezpalχ | 80 |
*nurφalχ | 90 |
Archaeological evidence strongly supports the correspondence 4/huth and 6/sa. For instance, in the frescos of the Tomb of the Charons in the
In 2006, S. A. Yatsemirsky presented evidence that zar = śar meant ‘12’ (cf. zal ‘2’ and zaθrum ‘20’) while halχ meant ‘10’. According to his interpretation, the attested form huθzar was used for ‘sixteen’, not ‘fourteen’, assuming huθ meant four.^{[3]}
Much debate has been carried out about a possible