Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Amharic:የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ
(yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk)
Afar:ityoppiah federalih demokrasih ummuno
Oromo:Rippabliikii Federaalawaa Dimokraatawaa Itiyoophiyaa
Somali:Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiga Federaalka Itoobiya
Tigrinya:ናይኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ
(nayi’ītiyop’iya fēdēralawī dēmokirasīyawī rīpebilīki)
ወደፊት ገስግሺ፣ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ
March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia
Location of Ethiopia
and largest city
Addis Ababa
9°1′N 38°45′E / 9°1′N 38°45′E / 9.017; 38.750
Official languagesAmharic (federal level | de jure lingua franca)[1]
Foreign languages
Christianity (62.8%)
Islam (33.9%)
Traditional faiths (2.6%)
Others (0.7%)[4]
GovernmentFederal dominant-party parliamentary republic
• President
Sahle-Work Zewde
Abiy Ahmed Ali
Demeke Mekonnen
Tagesse Chafo
• President of the Federal Supreme Court
Meaza Ashenafi
LegislatureFederal Parliamentary Assembly
House of Federation
House of Peoples' Representatives
• Dʿmt
c. 980 BCE
c. 100 CE
• Sovereignty restored
21 August 1995
• Total
1,104,300[5] km2 (426,400 sq mi) (28th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
102,403,196[6] (12th)
• 2007 census
• Density
92.7/km2 (240.1/sq mi) (123rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$240.705 billion[8]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$90.968 billion[8]
• Per capita
Gini (2011)Negative increase 33.6[9]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.463[10]
low · 173rd
CurrencyBirr (ETB)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+251
ISO 3166 codeET

Ethiopia (ə/; Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, About this soundlisten , Tigrinya: ኢትዮጵያ, Oromo: Itoophiyaa, Somali: Itoobiya), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk, About this soundlisten ), is a country in the northeastern part of Africa, known as the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, the de facto state of Somaliland and Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest. With over 102 million inhabitants,[6] Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second-most populous nation on the African continent with a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi). Its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa, which lies a few miles west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the Nubian and Somali tectonic plates.[3]

The traditional flag of Ethiopia

Some of the oldest skeletal evidence for anatomically modern humans has been found in Ethiopia.[11] It is widely considered as the region from which modern humans first set out for the Middle East and places beyond.[12][13][14] According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations settled in the Horn region during the ensuing Neolithic era.[15] Tracing its roots to the 2nd millennium BCE, Ethiopia's governmental system was a monarchy for most of its history. Oral literature tells that the monarchy was founded by the Solomonic dynasty of the Queen of Sheba, under its first king, Menelik I.[16] In the first centuries, the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region,[17][18][19][20] followed by the Ethiopian Empire circa 1137. During the late 19th-century Scramble for Africa, Ethiopia and Liberia were two nations that preserved their sovereignty from long-term colonisation by a European colonial power and many newly-independent nations on the continent subsequently adopted its flag colours. However, the country was later occupied by Italy in 1936 and became Italian Ethiopia (part of Italian East Africa) until it was liberated during World War II. During the Italian rule, slavery in the country was abolished, and urbanization steadily increased.[21] Ethiopia was also the first independent member from Africa of the 20th-century League of Nations and the United Nations.[22] In 1974, the Ethiopian monarchy under Haile Selassie was overthrown by the Derg, a communist military government backed by the Soviet Union. In 1987, the Derg established the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, but it was overthrown in 1991 by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, which has been the ruling political coalition since.

Ethiopia and Eritrea use the ancient Ge'ez script, which is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world.[23] The Ethiopian calendar, which is approximately seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar, co-exists alongside the Borana calendar. A majority of the population adheres to Christianity (mainly the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and P'ent'ay) and the historical Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first states to officially adopt the religion, whereas around a third follows Islam (primarily Sunni). The country is the site of the Migration to Abyssinia and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. A substantial population of Ethiopian Jews, known as Bete Israel, also resided in Ethiopia until the 1980s.[24][25] Ethiopia is a multilingual nation with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromo, Amhara, Somali and Tigrayans. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Nilo-Saharan languages are also spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities. Oromo is the most populous language by native speakers, while Amharic is the most populous by number of total speakers and serves as the working language in the federal government. Ge'ez remains important as a liturgical language, both for the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, and for the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews).

The nation is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile west, its forests, and numerous rivers, and the world's hottest settlement of Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are the largest continuous mountain ranges in Africa, and the Sof Omar Caves contains the largest cave on the continent. Ethiopia also has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa.[26] Additionally, the sovereign state is a founding member of the UN, the Group of 24 (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement, G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity. Its capital city Addis Ababa serves as the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, the African Standby Force, and many of the global NGOs focused on Africa. In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethiopia experienced civil conflicts and communist purges, which hindered its economy. The country has since recovered and now has the largest economy (by GDP) in East Africa, having the largest population in the region.[27][28][29]


The Greek name Αἰθιοπία (from Αἰθίοψ, Aithiops, 'an Ethiopian') is a compound word, derived from the two Greek words, from αἴθω + ὤψ (aitho "I burn" + ops "face"). According to the Perseus Digital Library, the designation properly translates as Burnt-face in noun form and red-brown in adjectival form.[30] The historian Herodotus used the appellation to denote those parts of Africa South of the Sahara that were then known within the Ecumene (inhabitable world).[31] However, the Greek formation may be a folk etymology for the Ancient Egyptian term athtiu-abu, which means 'robbers of hearts'.[32] This Greek name was borrowed into Amharic as ኢትዮጵያ, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā.

In Greco-Roman epigraphs, Aethiopia was a specific toponym for ancient Nubia.[33] At least as early as c. 850,[34] the name Aethiopia also occurs in many translations of the Old Testament in allusion to Nubia. The ancient Hebrew texts identify Nubia instead as Kush.[35] However, in the New Testament, the Greek term Aithiops does occur, referring to a servant of the Kandake, the queen of Kush.[36]

Following the Hellenic and Biblical traditions, the Monumentum Adulitanum, a third century inscription belonging to the Aksumite Empire, indicates that Aksum's then ruler governed an area which was flanked to the west by the territory of Ethiopia and Sasu. The Aksumite King Ezana would eventually conquer Nubia the following century, and the Aksumites thereafter appropriated the designation "Ethiopians" for their own kingdom. In the Ge'ez version of the Ezana inscription, Aἰθιόποι is equated with the unvocalized Ḥbštm and Ḥbśt (Ḥabashat), and denotes for the first time the highland inhabitants of Aksum. This new demonym would subsequently be rendered as ’ḥbs (’Aḥbāsh) in Sabaic and as Ḥabasha in Arabic.[33]

In the 15th-century Ge'ez Book of Aksum, the name is ascribed to a legendary individual called Ityopp'is. He was an extra-Biblical son of Cush, son of Ham, said to have founded the city of Axum.[37]

In English, and generally outside of Ethiopia, the country was once historically known as Abyssinia. This toponym was derived from the Latinized form of the ancient Habash.[38]

Other Languages
Acèh: Ethiopia
адыгабзэ: Эфиопие
Afrikaans: Ethiopië
Alemannisch: Äthiopien
አማርኛ: ኢትዮጵያ
العربية: إثيوبيا
aragonés: Etiopia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܟܘܫ
arpetan: Ètiopie
asturianu: Etiopía
Avañe'ẽ: Etiopía
Aymar aru: Itiwpiya
azərbaycanca: Efiopiya
تۆرکجه: اتیوپی
bamanankan: Etiopia
Banjar: Ethiopia
Bân-lâm-gú: Ethiopia
башҡортса: Эфиопия
беларуская: Эфіопія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Этыёпія
भोजपुरी: इथियोपिया
Bikol Central: Etyopya
български: Етиопия
Boarisch: Ethiopien
bosanski: Etiopija
brezhoneg: Etiopia
буряад: Этиопи
català: Etiòpia
Чӑвашла: Эфиопи
Cebuano: Etiopia
čeština: Etiopie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Etiopía
chiShona: Ethiopia
Cymraeg: Ethiopia
dansk: Etiopien
davvisámegiella: Etiopia
Deutsch: Äthiopien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޙަބުޝްކަރަ
dolnoserbski: Etiopiska
डोटेली: इथियोपिया
eesti: Etioopia
Ελληνικά: Αιθιοπία
español: Etiopía
Esperanto: Etiopio
estremeñu: Etiopia
euskara: Etiopia
eʋegbe: Etiopia
فارسی: اتیوپی
Fiji Hindi: Ethiopia
føroyskt: Etiopia
français: Éthiopie
Frysk: Etioopje
Gaeilge: An Aetóip
Gaelg: Yn Eetoip
Gagauz: Etiyopiya
Gàidhlig: An Aetiòp
galego: Etiopía
ГӀалгӀай: Эфиопи
Gĩkũyũ: Ethiopia
ગુજરાતી: ઇથિયોપિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इथिओपिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ethiopia
한국어: 에티오피아
Hausa: Ethiopia
Hawaiʻi: ‘Aikiopia
հայերեն: Եթովպիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Եթովպիա
हिन्दी: इथोपिया
hornjoserbsce: Etiopiska
hrvatski: Etiopija
Ido: Etiopia
Igbo: Ethiopia
Ilokano: Etiopia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইথিওপিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Etiopia
interlingua: Ethiopia
Interlingue: Etiopia
Ирон: Эфиопи
isiXhosa: ITopiya
isiZulu: I-Ithiopia
íslenska: Eþíópía
italiano: Etiopia
עברית: אתיופיה
Jawa: Étiopia
Kabɩyɛ: Etiyoopii
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಇತಿಯೋಪಿಯ
Kapampangan: Ethiopia
ქართული: ეთიოპია
kaszëbsczi: Etiopiô
қазақша: Эфиопия
kernowek: Ethiopi
Kinyarwanda: Etiyopiya
Kiswahili: Ethiopia
коми: Эфиопия
Kongo: Itiopia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Etyopi
kurdî: Etiyopya
Кыргызча: Эфиопия
кырык мары: Эфиопи
Ladino: Etiopia
لۊری شومالی: اْتیۊپی
Latina: Aethiopia
latviešu: Etiopija
Lëtzebuergesch: Ethiopien
лезги: Эфиопия
lietuvių: Etiopija
Ligure: Etiòpia
Limburgs: Ethiopië
lingála: Etiopi
Lingua Franca Nova: Itiopia
Livvinkarjala: Efiopii
la .lojban.: itiopias
Luganda: Ethiopia
lumbaart: Etiopia
magyar: Etiópia
मैथिली: इथियोपिया
македонски: Етиопија
Malagasy: Etiopia
മലയാളം: എത്യോപ്യ
Malti: Etjopja
მარგალური: ეთიოპია
مصرى: اثيوبيا
مازِرونی: اتیوپی
Bahasa Melayu: Habsyah
Minangkabau: Ethiopia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ethiopia
монгол: Этиоп
Nāhuatl: Etiopia
Dorerin Naoero: Itiyopiya
Nederlands: Ethiopië
Nedersaksies: Etiopie
नेपाली: इथियोपिया
नेपाल भाषा: इथियोपिया
日本語: エチオピア
нохчийн: Эфиопи
Nordfriisk: Etioopien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ethiopia
norsk: Etiopia
norsk nynorsk: Etiopia
Novial: Etiopia
occitan: Etiopia
олык марий: Эфиопий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇଥିଓପିଆ
Oromoo: Itoophiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Efiopiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਥੋਪੀਆ
پنجابی: ایتھوپیا
Papiamentu: Ethiopia
پښتو: ایتوپیا
Patois: Iityuopia
Перем Коми: Итьоппья
Piemontèis: Etiòpia
Plattdüütsch: Äthiopien
polski: Etiopia
português: Etiópia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Efiopiya
qırımtatarca: Abeşistan
română: Etiopia
rumantsch: Etiopia
Runa Simi: Ithiyupya
русиньскый: Етіопія
русский: Эфиопия
саха тыла: Этиопия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱤᱛᱷᱤᱭᱳᱯᱤᱭᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Aitiope
संस्कृतम्: ईथ्योपिया
Sängö: Etiopïi
sardu: Etiòpia
Scots: Ethiopie
Seeltersk: Äthiopien
Sesotho: Ethiopia
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ethiopia
shqip: Etiopia
sicilianu: Etiopia
Simple English: Ethiopia
سنڌي: ايٿوپيا
SiSwati: ITopiya
slovenčina: Etiópia
slovenščina: Etiopija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Єѳїопїꙗ
ślůnski: Etjopijo
Soomaaliga: Itoobiya
کوردی: ئیتیۆپیا
Sranantongo: Ethiopikondre
српски / srpski: Етиопија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Etiopija
Sunda: Étiopia
suomi: Etiopia
svenska: Etiopien
Tagalog: Ethiopia
Taqbaylit: Ityupya
tarandíne: Etiopie
татарча/tatarça: Хәбәшстан
తెలుగు: ఇథియోపియా
ትግርኛ: ኢትዮጵያ
тоҷикӣ: Эфиопия
Türkçe: Etiyopya
Türkmençe: Efiopiýa
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Ethiopia
удмурт: Эфиопия
українська: Ефіопія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئېفىئوپىيە
Vahcuengh: Ethiopia
vèneto: Etiopia
vepsän kel’: Efiopii
Tiếng Việt: Ethiopia
Volapük: Lätiopän
Võro: Etioopia
walon: Etiopeye
文言: 衣索比亞
Winaray: Etiyopya
Wolof: Ecoopi
Xitsonga: Topiya
ייִדיש: עטיאפיע
Yorùbá: Ethiópíà
Zazaki: Etyopya
Zeêuws: Ethiopië
žemaitėška: Etiuopėjė