Eritrea

State of Eritrea

Anthem: "Ertra, Ertra, Ertra"
(English: "Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea")
Location of  Eritrea  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)
Location of  Eritrea  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)

Location of Eritrea
Capital
and largest city
Asmara
15°20′N 38°55′E / 15°20′N 38°55′E / 15.333; 38.917
Official languagesNone[1] (see working languages)
Recognised national languages
Working languages
Ethnic groups
(2012[7])
Demonym(s)Eritrean
GovernmentUnitary one-party presidential republic under a totalitarian dictatorship[8][9][10]
• President
Isaias Afwerki
LegislatureNational Assembly
Formation
1890
15 September 1952
• De facto State of Eritrea
24 May 1991
• De jure State of Eritrea
24 May 1993
Area
• Total
117,600 km2 (45,400 sq mi) (99th)
• Water (%)
0.14%
Population
• 2016 estimate
4,954,645[11] (116th)
• Density
51.8/km2 (134.2/sq mi) (154th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$10.176 billion[12]
• Per capita
$1,466[12]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$6.856 billion[12]
• Per capita
$988[12]
HDI (2017)Steady 0.440[13]
low · 179th
CurrencyNakfa (ERN)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (not observed)
Driving sideright
Calling code+291
ISO 3166 codeER
Internet TLD.er

Eritrea (ə/;[14]  (About this soundlisten)), officially the State of Eritrea[15] is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands. Its toponym Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea (Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa), which was first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890.

Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups in its population of around 5 million. Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinyas make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam.[16]

The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second centuries AD.[17][18] It adopted Christianity around the middle of the fourth century.[19] In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, with a smaller region being part of Hamasien.

The creation of modern-day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent, distinct kingdoms and sultanates (for example, Medri Bahri and the Sultanate of Aussa) eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. After the defeat of the Italian colonial army in 1942, Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952. Following the UN General Assembly decision, in 1952, Eritrea would govern itself with a local Eritrean parliament but for foreign affairs and defense it would enter into a federal status with Ethiopia for a period of 10 years. However, in 1962 the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean parliament and formally annexed Eritrea. But the Eritreans that argued for complete Eritrean independence since the ouster of the Italians in 1941, anticipated what was coming and in 1960 organized the Eritrean Liberation Front in opposition. In 1991, after 30 years of continuous armed struggle for independence, the Eritrean liberation fighters entered the capital city, Asmara, in victory.

Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have never been held since independence.[20] According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean government's human rights record is among the worst in the world.[21] The Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated.[22] The compulsory military service requires long, indefinite conscription periods, which some Eritreans leave the country to avoid.[23] Because all local media is state-owned, Eritrea was also ranked as having the second-least press freedom in the global Press Freedom Index, behind only North Korea.

The sovereign state of Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and is an observer in the Arab League alongside Brazil, Venezuela, India and Turkey.[24]

Name

During the Middle Ages, the Eritrea region was known as Medri Bahri ("sea-land"). The name Eritrea is derived from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea (Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa, based on the adjective ἐρυθρός erythros "red"). It was first formally adopted in 1890, with the formation of Italian Eritrea (Colonia Eritrea).[25] The territory became the Eritrea Governorate within Italian East Africa in 1936. After the defeat of the Italian colonial army In Eritrea in 1942 by the British Army, Eritrea was under the protectorate of the British Military Administration while the fate of the former colonies of Italy was being debated at the UN. In 1952 the UN adopted that Eritrea would be self-governing for domestic affairs through an elected Eritrean Parliament while trade, foreign affairs and defense would be handled in a federal status with the Government of Ethiopia. But in 1962, after a series of political machinations, the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean Parliament and annexed Eritrea as one of the provinces of Ethiopia. But the Eritrean people that had fought for independence since the defeat of the Italian colonial army was removed never doubted what the designs of the Ethiopian government were. Therefore, in 1960 they formed the Eritrean Liberation Front. And after 30 years of armed struggle, Eritrea gained its de facto independence in 1991. And following the 1993 referendum, and the name of the new state was defined as State of Eritrea in the 1997 constitution.[26]

Other Languages
Acèh: Eritrea
адыгабзэ: Эритрее
Afrikaans: Eritrea
Akan: Eritrea
Alemannisch: Eritrea
አማርኛ: ኤርትራ
Ænglisc: Æriþrea
العربية: إريتريا
aragonés: Eritrea
armãneashti: Eritrea
arpetan: Èritrê
asturianu: Eritrea
Avañe'ẽ: Erityréa
azərbaycanca: Eritreya
تۆرکجه: اریتره
bamanankan: Eritere
Bahasa Banjar: Eritrea
Bân-lâm-gú: Eritrea
башҡортса: Эритрея
беларуская: Эрытрэя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Эрытрэя
भोजपुरी: इरीट्रिया
Bikol Central: Eritreya
български: Еритрея
བོད་ཡིག: ཨི་རི་ཏྲའ།
bosanski: Eritreja
brezhoneg: Eritrea
буряад: Эритрей
català: Eritrea
Cebuano: Eritrea
čeština: Eritrea
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Eritrea
chiShona: Eritrea
Cymraeg: Eritrea
dansk: Eritrea
davvisámegiella: Eritrea
Deutsch: Eritrea
ދިވެހިބަސް: އެރިތުރިއާ
dolnoserbski: Eritreja
डोटेली: इरिट्रया
eesti: Eritrea
Ελληνικά: Ερυθραία
español: Eritrea
Esperanto: Eritreo
estremeñu: Eritrea
euskara: Eritrea
eʋegbe: Eritrea
فارسی: اریتره
Fiji Hindi: Eritrea
føroyskt: Eritrea
français: Érythrée
Frysk: Eritreä
Fulfulde: Eritereya
Gaeilge: An Eiritré
Gaelg: Eritrea
Gagauz: Eritreya
Gàidhlig: Eartra
galego: Eritrea
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इरिट्रिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Eritrea
한국어: 에리트레아
Hausa: Eritrea
Hawaiʻi: ʻElikilea
հայերեն: Էրիթրեա
हिन्दी: इरित्रिया
hornjoserbsce: Eritreja
hrvatski: Eritreja
Ido: Eritrea
Igbo: Eritrea
Ilokano: Eritrea
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইরিত্রিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Eritrea
interlingua: Eritrea
Interlingue: Eritréa
Ирон: Эритрей
isiZulu: I-Eritrea
íslenska: Eritrea
italiano: Eritrea
עברית: אריתריאה
Basa Jawa: Éritréa
Kabɩyɛ: Eriitree
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಎರಿಟ್ರಿಯ
Kapampangan: Eritrea
ქართული: ერიტრეა
қазақша: Эритрея
kernowek: Eritrea
Kinyarwanda: Eritereya
Kiswahili: Eritrea
Kongo: Eritrea
Kreyòl ayisyen: Eritre
kurdî: Erîtrea
Кыргызча: Эритрея
кырык мары: Эритрей
Ladino: Eritrea
لۊری شومالی: اٛریتیراٛ
Latina: Erythraea
latviešu: Eritreja
Lëtzebuergesch: Eritrea
lietuvių: Eritrėja
Ligure: Eritrea
Limburgs: Eritrea
lingála: Elitré
Lingua Franca Nova: Ertra
Livvinkarjala: Eritrei
Luganda: Eritrea
lumbaart: Eritrea
magyar: Eritrea
मैथिली: एरिट्रिया
македонски: Еритреја
Malagasy: Eritrea
മലയാളം: എരിട്രിയ
Malti: Eritrea
მარგალური: ერიტრეა
مصرى: اريتريا
مازِرونی: اریتره
Bahasa Melayu: Eritrea
Baso Minangkabau: Eritrea
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Eritrea
монгол: Эритрей
Nāhuatl: Eritrea
Dorerin Naoero: Eritrea
Nederlands: Eritrea
नेपाली: एरिट्रिया
नेपाल भाषा: इरिट्रिया
日本語: エリトリア
нохчийн: Эритрей
Nordfriisk: Eritrea
Norfuk / Pitkern: Eritreya
norsk: Eritrea
norsk nynorsk: Eritrea
Novial: Eritrea
occitan: Eritrèa
олык марий: Эритрей
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇରିଟ୍ରିଆ
Oromoo: Eeritiraa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Eritreya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਰੀਤਰੀਆ
پنجابی: اریٹریا
Papiamentu: Eritrea
پښتو: اریتره
Patois: Erichriya
Piemontèis: Eritrea
Plattdüütsch: Eritrea
polski: Erytrea
português: Eritreia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Eritreya
qırımtatarca: Eritreya
română: Eritreea
rumantsch: Eritrea
Runa Simi: Iritriya
русский: Эритрея
саха тыла: Эритрея
Gagana Samoa: Eritrea
संस्कृतम्: इरीट्रिया
Sängö: Eritrëe
sardu: Eritrea
Scots: Eritrea
Seeltersk: Eritrea
Sesotho: Eritrea
Sesotho sa Leboa: Eritrea
shqip: Eritrea
sicilianu: Eritria
Simple English: Eritrea
SiSwati: IRitheya
slovenčina: Eritrea
slovenščina: Eritreja
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Єрѷѳрїꙗ
ślůnski: Erytryja
Soomaaliga: Eratareya
کوردی: ئێریتریا
српски / srpski: Еритреја
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Eritreja
Basa Sunda: Éritréa
suomi: Eritrea
svenska: Eritrea
Tagalog: Eritrea
Taqbaylit: Iritirya
татарча/tatarça: Эритрея
తెలుగు: ఎరిత్రియా
ትግርኛ: ኤርትራ
тоҷикӣ: Эритрея
Türkçe: Eritre
Türkmençe: Eritreýa
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Eriteria
українська: Еритрея
اردو: ارتریا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئېرىترېيە
vèneto: Eritrea
vepsän kel’: Eritrei
Tiếng Việt: Eritrea
Volapük: Lerüträn
Võro: Eritrea
文言: 厄利垂亞
Winaray: Eritrea
Wolof: Eritere
Xitsonga: Eritreya
ייִדיש: עריטרעא
Yorùbá: Ẹritrẹ́à
Zazaki: Eritreya
Zeêuws: Eritrea
žemaitėška: Eritrėjė