English language

  • english
    pronunciationʃ/[1]
    regionbritish isles (birthplace)
    worldwide
    ethnicityanglo-saxons (historically)
    native speakers
    360–400 million (2006)[2]
    l2 speakers: 750 million;
    as a foreign language: 600–700 million[2]
    language family
    indo-european
    • germanic
      • west germanic
        • anglo-frisian
          • anglic
            • english
    early forms
    proto-germanic
    • middle english
      • early modern english
    writing system
    • latin script (english alphabet)
    • anglo saxon runes (historically)
    • english braille, unified english braille
    signed forms
    manually coded english
    (multiple systems)
    official status
    official language in
    • 67 countries
    • 27 non-sovereign entities
    language codes
    en
    eng
    iso 639-3eng
    stan1293[3]
    linguasphere52-aba
    anglospeak (svg version).svg
      regions where english is a majority native language
      regions where english is official but not a majority native language
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    english is a west germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval england and eventually became a global lingua franca.[4][5] it is named after the angles, one of the germanic tribes that migrated to the area of great britain that later took their name, as england. both names derive from anglia, a peninsula in the baltic sea. the language is closely related to frisian and low saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other germanic languages, particularly norse (a north germanic language), and to a greater extent by latin and french.[6]

    english has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. the earliest forms of english, a group of west germanic (ingvaeonic) dialects brought to great britain by anglo-saxon settlers in the 5th century, are collectively called old english. middle english began in the late 11th century with the norman conquest of england; this was a period in which the language was influenced by french.[7] early modern english began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to london, the printing of the king james bible and the start of the great vowel shift.[8]

    modern english has been spreading around the world since the 17th century by the worldwide influence of the british empire and the united states. through all types of printed and electronic media of these countries, english has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law.[9]

    english is the largest language by number of speakers,[10] and the third most-spoken native language in the world, after standard chinese and spanish.[11] it is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. there are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. it is estimated that there are over 2 billion speakers of english.[12] english is the majority native language in the united states, the united kingdom, canada, australia, new zealand and the republic of ireland, and it is widely spoken in some areas of the caribbean, africa and south asia.[13] it is a co-official language of the united nations, the european union and many other world and regional international organisations. it is the most widely spoken germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this indo-european branch. english has a vast vocabulary, though counting how many words any language has is impossible.[14][15] english speakers are called "anglophones".

    modern english grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical indo-european dependent marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed subject–verb–object word order and a complex syntax.[16] modern english relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation. the variation among the accents and dialects of english used in different countries and regions—in terms of phonetics and phonology, and sometimes also vocabulary, idioms, grammar, and spelling—can often be understood by speakers of different dialects, but in extreme cases can lead to confusion or even mutual unintelligibility between english speakers.

  • classification
  • history
  • geographical distribution
  • phonology
  • grammar
  • vocabulary
  • writing system
  • dialects, accents, and varieties
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

English
Pronunciationʃ/[1]
RegionBritish Isles (birthplace)
Worldwide
EthnicityAnglo-Saxons (historically)
Native speakers
360–400 million (2006)[2]
L2 speakers: 750 million;
as a foreign language: 600–700 million[2]
Early forms
Manually coded English
(multiple systems)
Official status
Official language in
Language codes
en
eng
ISO 639-3eng
stan1293[3]
Linguasphere52-ABA
Anglospeak (SVG version).svg
  Regions where English is a majority native language
  Regions where English is official but not a majority native language
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca.[4][5] It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), and to a greater extent by Latin and French.[6]

English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a group of West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are collectively called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England; this was a period in which the language was influenced by French.[7] Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift.[8]

Modern English has been spreading around the world since the 17th century by the worldwide influence of the British Empire and the United States. Through all types of printed and electronic media of these countries, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law.[9]

English is the largest language by number of speakers,[10] and the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish.[11] It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. There are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. It is estimated that there are over 2 billion speakers of English.[12] English is the majority native language in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Republic of Ireland, and it is widely spoken in some areas of the Caribbean, Africa and South Asia.[13] It is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this Indo-European branch. English has a vast vocabulary, though counting how many words any language has is impossible.[14][15] English speakers are called "Anglophones".

Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed subject–verb–object word order and a complex syntax.[16] Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation. The variation among the accents and dialects of English used in different countries and regions—in terms of phonetics and phonology, and sometimes also vocabulary, idioms, grammar, and spelling—can often be understood by speakers of different dialects, but in extreme cases can lead to confusion or even mutual unintelligibility between English speakers.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Инджылыбзэ
адыгабзэ: Инджылызыбзэ
Afrikaans: Engels
Akan: English
Alemannisch: Englische Sprache
አማርኛ: እንግሊዝኛ
aragonés: Idioma anglés
Արեւմտահայերէն: Անգլերէն
armãneashti: Limba anglicheascã
arpetan: Anglès
অসমীয়া: ইংৰাজী ভাষা
asturianu: Idioma inglés
Avañe'ẽ: Ingleñe'ẽ
Aymar aru: Inlish aru
azərbaycanca: İngilis dili
bamanankan: Angilɛkan
Bân-lâm-gú: Eng-gí
Basa Banyumasan: Basa Inggris
башҡортса: Инглиз теле
беларуская: Англійская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ангельская мова
भोजपुरी: अंगरेजी
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Ingles
български: Английски език
bosanski: Engleski jezik
brezhoneg: Saozneg
буряад: Англи хэлэн
català: Anglès
Cebuano: Iningles
čeština: Angličtina
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Lengua Inglés
Chi-Chewa: Chingerezi
chiShona: Chirungu
Cymraeg: Saesneg
davvisámegiella: Eaŋgalsgiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިނގިރޭސި
Diné bizaad: Bilagáana bizaad
dolnoserbski: Engelšćina
ཇོང་ཁ: ཨིང་ལིཤ
Ελληνικά: Αγγλική γλώσσα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Inglés
español: Idioma inglés
Esperanto: Angla lingvo
estremeñu: Luenga ingresa
euskara: Ingeles
eʋegbe: Eŋlisigbe
Fiji Hindi: English bhasa
føroyskt: Enskt mál
français: Anglais
Frysk: Ingelsk
Gaeilge: An Béarla
Gaelg: Baarle
Gàidhlig: Beurla
ГӀалгӀай: Ингалсий мотт
贛語: 英語
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Inglez
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yîn-ngî
한국어: 영어
Hausa: Turanci
հայերեն: Անգլերեն
hornjoserbsce: Jendźelšćina
hrvatski: Engleski jezik
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইংরেজি ঠার
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Inggris
interlingua: Lingua anglese
Interlingue: Anglesi
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᑦ
isiXhosa: IsiNgesi
isiZulu: IsiNgisi
íslenska: Enska
italiano: Lingua inglese
עברית: אנגלית
kalaallisut: Tuluttut
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಆಂಗ್ಲ
Kapampangan: Amanung Ingles
къарачай-малкъар: Ингилиз тил
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: اَنٖگرَیزی زَبانَ
kaszëbsczi: Anielsczi jãzëk
қазақша: Ағылшын тілі
kernowek: Sowsnek
Kinyarwanda: Icyongereza
Kiswahili: Kiingereza
Kongo: Kingelezi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lang angle
kriyòl gwiyannen: Annglé
Кыргызча: Англис тили
кырык мары: Англ йӹлмӹ
لۊری شومالی: زڤوݩ اْنڳلٛیسی
latviešu: Angļu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Englesch
lietuvių: Anglų kalba
Limburgs: Ingels
lingála: Lingɛlɛ́sa
Lingua Franca Nova: Engles (lingua)
Livvinkarjala: Anglien kieli
la .lojban.: glibau
lumbaart: Lengua inglesa
magyar: Angol nyelv
македонски: Англиски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny anglisy
Māori: Reo Pākehā
მარგალური: ინგლისური ნინა
مصرى: انجليزى
مازِرونی: اینگلیسی زبون
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Inggeris
Minangkabau: Bahaso Inggirih
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ĭng-ngṳ̄
Mirandés: Léngua anglesa
мокшень: Англань кяль
монгол: Англи хэл
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Iburubur
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Vosa Vakavalagi
Nederlands: Engels
Nedersaksies: Engels
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᐧᐁᒥᔥᑎᑯᔒᐤ ᐊᔨᒧᐧᐃᓐ
नेपाल भाषा: अंग्रेजी भाषा
日本語: 英語
Napulitano: Lengua ngrese
Nordfriisk: Ingelsk spriak
Norfuk / Pitkern: Inglish
norsk: Engelsk
norsk nynorsk: Engelsk
Nouormand: Angliais
Novial: Anglum
occitan: Anglés
олык марий: Англичан йылме
Oshiwambo: English
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ingliz tili
Pangasinan: Salitan Ingles
پنجابی: انگریزی
Papiamentu: Ingles
پښتو: انګلیسي
Patois: Ingglish
Перем Коми: Инглиш кыв
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាអង់គ្លេស
Picard: Inglé
Piemontèis: Lenga anglèisa
Tok Pisin: Tokples Inglis
Plattdüütsch: Engelsche Spraak
português: Língua inglesa
Qaraqalpaqsha: Ingliz tili
qırımtatarca: İngliz tili
reo tahiti: Reo Paratāne
Ripoarisch: Änglische Sproch
română: Limba engleză
rumantsch: Lingua englaisa
Runa Simi: Inlish simi
русиньскый: Анґліцькый язык
саха тыла: Ааҥыл тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'aperetania
संस्कृतम्: आङ्ग्लभाषा
Sängö: Anglëe
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱤᱝᱞᱤᱥ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ
Sesotho: Senyesemane
Sesotho sa Leboa: Seisimane
Setswana: Sekgoga
sicilianu: Lingua ngrisa
Simple English: English language
SiSwati: SíNgísi
slovenčina: Angličtina
slovenščina: Angleščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Англїискъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
ślůnski: Angelsko godka
Soomaaliga: Af-Ingiriisi
Sranantongo: Ingristongo
српски / srpski: Енглески језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Engleski jezik
svenska: Engelska
Tagalog: Wikang Ingles
தமிழ்: ஆங்கிலம்
Taqbaylit: Taglizit
tarandíne: Lènga 'nglese
татарча/tatarça: Инглиз теле
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : လိၵ်ႈဢင်းၵိတ်ႉ
తెలుగు: ఆంగ్ల భాష
Tshivenda: English
Türkçe: İngilizce
Türkmençe: Iňlis dili
Twi: English
тыва дыл: Англи дыл
удмурт: Англи кыл
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨅᨔ ᨕᨗᨋᨗᨔᨗ
українська: Англійська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىنگلىز تىلى
Vahcuengh: Vah Yinghgoz
vepsän kel’: Anglijan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Anh
Volapük: Linglänapük
文言: 英語
West-Vlams: Iengels
Winaray: Ininglis
吴语: 英语
Xitsonga: Xinghezi
ייִדיש: ענגליש
粵語: 英文
Zazaki: İngılızki
Zeêuws: Iengels
žemaitėška: Onglu kalba
中文: 英语