English Braille

  • english braille
    grade-2 braille
    british revised braille
    english braille sample.jpg
    type
    alphabet (non-linear)
    languagesenglish
    time period
    1902
    parent systems
    night writing
    • early braille
      • french braille
        • english braille
    print basis
    english alphabet
    child systems
    unified international braille
    unified english braille
    irish braille
    u+2800 to u+283f

    english braille, also known as grade 2 braille,[1] is the braille alphabet used for english. it consists of 250 or so letters (phonograms), numerals, punctuation, formatting marks, contractions, and abbreviations (logograms). some english braille letters, such as ⟨ch⟩,[2] correspond to more than one letter in print.

    there are three levels of complexity in english braille. grade 1 is a nearly one-to-one transcription of printed english and is restricted to basic literacy. grade 2, which is nearly universal beyond basic literacy materials, abandons one-to-one transcription in many places (such as the letter ⟨ch⟩) and adds hundreds of abbreviations and contractions. both grade 1 and grade 2 have been standardized. "grade 3" is any of various personal shorthands that are almost never found in publications. most of this article describes the 1994 american edition of grade 2 braille, which is largely equivalent to british grade 2 braille.[3] some of the differences with unified english braille, which was officially adopted by various countries between 2005 and 2012, are discussed at the end.

    braille is frequently portrayed[by whom?] as a re-encoding of the english orthography used by sighted people. however, braille is an independent writing system, not a variant of the printed english alphabet.[4]

  • history
  • system
  • alphabet
  • punctuation marks
  • formatting marks
  • contractions
  • abbreviations
  • spacing
  • unified english braille
  • sample
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

English Braille
Grade-2 Braille
British Revised Braille
English braille sample.jpg
Type
LanguagesEnglish
Time period
1902
Parent systems
Print basis
English alphabet
Child systems
unified international braille
Unified English Braille
Irish Braille

English Braille, also known as Grade 2 Braille,[1] is the braille alphabet used for English. It consists of 250 or so letters (phonograms), numerals, punctuation, formatting marks, contractions, and abbreviations (logograms). Some English Braille letters, such as ⟨ch⟩,[2] correspond to more than one letter in print.

There are three levels of complexity in English Braille. Grade 1 is a nearly one-to-one transcription of printed English and is restricted to basic literacy. Grade 2, which is nearly universal beyond basic literacy materials, abandons one-to-one transcription in many places (such as the letter ⟨ch⟩) and adds hundreds of abbreviations and contractions. Both Grade 1 and Grade 2 have been standardized. "Grade 3" is any of various personal shorthands that are almost never found in publications. Most of this article describes the 1994 American edition of Grade 2 Braille, which is largely equivalent to British Grade 2 Braille.[3] Some of the differences with Unified English Braille, which was officially adopted by various countries between 2005 and 2012, are discussed at the end.

Braille is frequently portrayed[by whom?] as a re-encoding of the English orthography used by sighted people. However, braille is an independent writing system, not a variant of the printed English alphabet.[4]

Other Languages
한국어: 영어 점자
日本語: 英語の点字
中文: 英语盲文