DOSBox emulates the command-line interface of DOS.

In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest). An emulator typically enables the host system to run software or use peripheral devices designed for the guest system. Emulation refers to the ability of a computer program in an electronic device to emulate (or imitate) another program or device. Many printers, for example, are designed to emulate Hewlett-Packard LaserJet printers because so much software is written for HP printers. If a non-HP printer emulates an HP printer, any software written for a real HP printer will also run in the non-HP printer emulation and produce equivalent printing. Since at least the 1990s, many video game enthusiasts have used emulators to play classic (and/or forgotten) arcade games from the 1980s using the games' original 1980s programming code, which is interpreted by a current-era system.

A hardware emulator is an emulator which takes the form of a hardware device. Examples include the DOS-compatible card installed in some 1990s-era Macintosh computers like the Centris 610 or Performa 630 that allowed them to run personal computer (PC) software programs and FPGA-based hardware emulators. In a theoretical sense, the Church-Turing thesis implies that (under the assumption that enough memory is available) any operating environment can be emulated within any other environment. However, in practice, it can be quite difficult, particularly when the exact behavior of the system to be emulated is not documented and has to be deduced through reverse engineering. It also says nothing about timing constraints; if the emulator does not perform as quickly as the original hardware, the emulated software may run much more slowly than it would have on the original hardware, possibly triggering timer interrupts that alter behavior.

In preservation

Emulation is a strategy in digital preservation to combat obsolescence. Emulation focuses on recreating an original computer environment, which can be time-consuming and difficult to achieve, but valuable because of its ability to maintain a closer connection to the authenticity of the digital object.[2] Emulation addresses the original hardware and software environment of the digital object, and recreates it on a current machine.[3] The emulator allows the user to have access to any kind of application or operating system on a current platform, while the software runs as it did in its original environment.[4] Jeffery Rothenberg, an early proponent of emulation as a digital preservation strategy states, "the ideal approach would provide a single extensible, long-term solution that can be designed once and for all and applied uniformly, automatically, and in synchrony (for example, at every refresh cycle) to all types of documents and media".[5] He further states that this should not only apply to out of date systems, but also be upwardly mobile to future unknown systems.[6] Practically speaking, when a certain application is released in a new version, rather than address compatibility issues and migration for every digital object created in the previous version of that application, one could create an emulator for the application, allowing access to all of said digital objects.


Basilisk II emulates a Macintosh 68k using interpretation code and dynamic recompilation.
  • Potentially better graphics quality than original hardware.
  • Potentially additional features original hardware didn't have.
  • Emulators maintain the original look, feel, and behavior of the digital object, which is just as important as the digital data itself.[7]
  • Despite the original cost of developing an emulator, it may prove to be the more cost efficient solution over time.[8]
  • Reduces labor hours, because rather than continuing an ongoing task of continual data migration for every digital object, once the library of past and present operating systems and application software is established in an emulator, these same technologies are used for every document using those platforms.[4]
  • Many emulators have already been developed and released under the GNU General Public License through the open source environment, allowing for wide scale collaboration.[9]
  • Emulators allow software exclusive to one system to be used on another. For example, a PlayStation 2 exclusive video game could be played on a PC using an emulator. This is especially useful when the original system is difficult to obtain, or incompatible with modern equipment (e.g. old video game consoles which connect via analog outputs may be unable to connect to modern TVs which may only have digital inputs).


  • Intellectual property - Many technology vendors implemented non-standard features during program development in order to establish their niche in the market, while simultaneously applying ongoing upgrades to remain competitive. While this may have advanced the technology industry and increased vendor's market share, it has left users lost in a preservation nightmare with little supporting documentation due to the proprietary nature of the hardware and software.[10]
  • Copyright laws are not yet in effect to address saving the documentation and specifications of proprietary software and hardware in an emulator module.[11]
  • Emulators are often used as a copyright infringement tool, since they allow users to play video games without having to buy the console, and rarely make any attempt to prevent the use of illegal copies. This leads to a number of legal uncertainties regarding emulation, and leads to software being programmed to refuse to work if it can tell the host is an emulator; some video games in particular will continue to run, but not allow the player to progress beyond some late stage in the game, often appearing to be faulty or just extremely difficult.[12][13] These protections make it more difficult to design emulators, since they must be accurate enough to avoid triggering the protections, whose effects may not be obvious.
  • Emulators require better hardware than the original system has.
Other Languages
العربية: محاكي (حاسوب)
azərbaycanca: Emulyator
беларуская: Эмуляцыя
български: Емулатор
čeština: Emulátor
dansk: Emulator
Deutsch: Emulator
eesti: Emulaator
español: Emulador
Esperanto: Imitilo
فارسی: برابرساز
français: Émulation
한국어: 에뮬레이터
hrvatski: Emulator
Ido: Emuleso
Bahasa Indonesia: Emulator
interlingua: Emulator
italiano: Emulatore
עברית: אמולציה
lietuvių: Emuliatorius
magyar: Emulátor
Nederlands: Emulator
norsk: Emulator
norsk nynorsk: Emulator
polski: Emulator
português: Emulador
русский: Эмуляция
Simple English: Emulator
slovenščina: Emulator
српски / srpski: Emulator
svenska: Emulator
Türkçe: Öykünücü
українська: Емуляція
中文: 仿真器