Emperor Xian of Han

Emperor Xian of Han
漢獻帝
Emperor Xian Qing illustration.jpg
A Qing dynasty illustration of Emperor Xian
Emperor of the Han Dynasty
Reign28 September 189 – 25 November 220[1]
PredecessorEmperor Shao of Han
Regent
Duke of Shanyang (山陽公)
Tenure25 November 220 - 21 April 234
SuccessorLiu Kang
Prince of Bohai (渤海王)
Tenure189 - 189
Prince of Chenliu (陳留王)
Tenure189 - 189
Born(181-04-02)2 April 181[2]
Luoyang, Han China
Died21 April 234(234-04-21) (aged 53) [3]
Henei Commandery, Cao Wei
Spouse
Full name
Family name: Liu (劉)
Given name: Xie (協)
Courtesy name: Bohe (伯和)
Posthumous name
Short: Xian (獻) (Wei), Min (愍) (Shu)
Full: Xiaoxian (孝獻) (Wei), Xiaomin (孝愍) (Shu)
DynastyHan dynasty
FatherEmperor Ling of Han
MotherWang Rong
Emperor Xian of Han
Traditional Chinese漢獻帝
Simplified Chinese汉献帝

Emperor Xian of Han (2 April 181 – 21 April 234), personal name Liu Xie, courtesy name Bohe, was the 14th and last emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty in China. He reigned from 28 September 189 until 25 November 220.

Liu Xie was a son of Liu Hong (Emperor Ling) and was a younger half-brother of his predecessor, Liu Bian (Emperor Shao). In 189, at the age of eight, he became emperor after the warlord Dong Zhuo, who had seized control of the Han central government, deposed Emperor Shao and replaced him with Liu Xie. The newly enthroned Liu Xie, historically known as Emperor Xian, was in fact a puppet ruler under Dong Zhuo's control. In 190, when a coalition of regional warlords launched a punitive campaign against Dong Zhuo in the name of freeing Emperor Xian, Dong Zhuo ordered the destruction of the imperial capital, Luoyang, and forcefully relocated the imperial capital along with its residents to Chang'an. After Dong Zhuo's assassination in 192, Emperor Xian fell under the control of Li Jue and Guo Si, two former subordinates of Dong Zhuo. The various regional warlords formally acknowledged Emperor Xian's legitimacy but never took action to save him from being held hostage.

In 195, Emperor Xian managed to escape from Chang'an and return to the ruins of Luoyang, where he soon became stranded. A year later, the warlord Cao Cao led his forces into Luoyang, received Emperor Xian, took him under his protection, and escorted him to Xu, where the new imperial capital was established. Although Cao Cao paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian, he was actually the de facto head of the central government. He skillfully used Emperor Xian as a "trump card" to bolster his legitimacy when he attacked and eliminated rival warlords in his quest to reunify the Han Empire under the central government's rule. Cao Cao's success seemed inevitable until the winter of 208–209, when he lost the decisive Battle of Red Cliffs against the southern warlords Sun Quan and Liu Bei. The battle paved the way for the subsequent emergence of the Three Kingdoms later.

In late 220, some months after Cao Cao's death, Cao Cao's successor, Cao Pi, forced Emperor Xian to abdicate the throne to him. He then established the state of [1] about 14 years after the fall of the Han dynasty.

Family background

Liu Xie was born in 181 to Emperor Ling and his Consort Wang. During her pregnancy, Consort Wang, fearful of Emperor Ling's Empress He, had taken drugs that were intended to induce an abortion, but was not successful in her attempt. Soon after she gave birth to Liu Xie, the jealous Empress He poisoned her by putting poison in her food. Emperor Ling was enraged and wanted to depose her, but the eunuchs pleaded on her behalf, and she was not deposed. Liu Xie was raised personally by Emperor Ling's mother Empress Dowager Dong and known by the circumspect title "Marquis Dong". (This is due to superstition; Emperor Ling had lost a number of sons previously, and therefore both Liu Xie and his elder brother Liu Bian were known by such titles; Liu Bian, having been raised by Shi Zimiao (史子眇), was known as "Marquis Shi"). Liu Bian was born of the empress and was older, but Emperor Ling viewed his behaviour as being insufficiently solemn and therefore considered appointing Liu Xie as his crown prince, but hesitated and could not decide.

When Emperor Ling died in 189, an influential eunuch official whom he trusted, Jian Shuo, wanted to first kill Empress He's brother, General-in-Chief He Jin, and then install Liu Xie on the throne, and therefore set up a trap at a meeting he was to have with He Jin. He Jin found out, and preemptively declared Liu Bian the new emperor. Later that year, Emperor Shao granted Liu Xie the title "Prince of Bohai" (渤海王) and later changed his title to "Prince of Chenliu" (陳留王).

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Hàn Hiàn-tè
Deutsch: Han Xiandi
français: Han Xiandi
한국어: 후한 헌제
Bahasa Indonesia: Kaisar Xian dari Han
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Háng Hióng-dá̤
Nederlands: Han Xiandi
日本語: 献帝 (漢)
norsk: Han Xiandi
polski: Han Xiandi
português: Xiandi
русский: Сянь-ди (Хань)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Car Xian od Hana
українська: Лю Сє
Tiếng Việt: Hán Hiến Đế
吴语: 汉献帝
粵語: 劉協
中文: 汉献帝