Emirate of Diriyah

Emirate of Diriyah
First Saudi State
إمارة الدرعية
‘Imāra ad-Dir‘iyya
Flag of Diriyah
Capital Diriyah
Languages Arabic
Religion Islam
Government Monarchy
 •  1744–1765 Muhammad bin Saud
 •  1765–1803 Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad
 •  1803–1814 Saud bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud
 •  1814–1818 Abdullah bin Saud
 •  Diriyah agreement 1744
 •  Ottoman–Saudi War 1818
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sultanate of Lahej
Sharifate of Mecca
Egypt Eyalet
Today part of   Saudi Arabia
  United Arab Emirates
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The Emirate of Diriyah was the first Saudi state. [1] It was established in the year 1744 (1157 A.H.) when Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Prince Muhammad bin Saud formed an alliance to found a socio-religious reform movement to unify the many states of the Arabian Peninsula and free it from Ottoman rule. [2] [3] In 1744, both Muhammed bin Abd Al Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud took an oath to achieve their goal. [4] Marriage between Muhammad bin Saud's son, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad, and the daughter of the Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab helped to seal the pact between their families which has lasted through the centuries to the present day.

Early establishment

The House of Saud and its allies quickly rose to become the dominant sovereignty in Arabia by first conquering Najd, and then expanding their influence over the eastern coast which measures from Kuwait down to the northern borders of Oman.[ citation needed] Furthermore, Saud's forces brought the highlands of 'Asir under their suzerainty, while Muhammad bin Abd Al Wahhab wrote letters to people and scholars to enter the field of jihad. After many military campaigns, Muhammad bin Saud died in 1765, leaving the leadership to his son, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad. Saud's forces went so far as to gain command of the Shi'a holy city of Karbala in 1801. Here they destroyed grave markers of saints and monuments and killed over 5000 civilians. [5] Muhammad bin Abd Al Wahhab died in 1792. In 1803, eleven years after Wahhab's death, the son of Abdul Aziz Bin Muhammad, Saud bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud, sent out forces to bring the region of Hejaz under his rule. [6] Ta'if was the first city to be captured, and later the two holy cities of Mecca and Medina. This was seen as a major challenge to the authority of the Ottoman Empire, which had exercised its rule over the holy cities since 1517.

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