Emerald

Emerald
Béryl var. émeraude sur gangue (Muzo Mine Boyaca - Colombie) 2.jpg
Emerald crystal from Muzo, Colombia
General
CategoryBeryl variety
Formula
(repeating unit)
Be3Al2(SiO3)6
Crystal systemHexagonal (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P6/mсc
Space group(6/m 2/m 2/m) – dihexagonal dipyramidal
Unit cella = 9.21 Å, c = 9.19 Å; Z = 2
Identification
Formula mass537.50
ColorGreen shades to colorless
Crystal habitMassive to well Crystalline
CleavageImperfect on the [0001]
FractureConchoidal
Mohs scale hardness7.5–8
LusterVitreous
StreakWhite
DiaphaneityTransparent to opaque
Specific gravityAverage 2.76
Optical propertiesUniaxial (−)
Refractive indexnω = 1.564–1.595,
nε = 1.568–1.602
Birefringenceδ = 0.0040–0.0070
Ultraviolet fluorescenceNone (some fracture-filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce, but the stone itself does not)
References[1]

Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.[2] Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale.[2] Most emeralds are highly included,[3] so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Emerald is a cyclosilicate.

Etymology

The word "emerald" is derived (via Old French: esmeraude and Middle English: emeraude), from Vulgar Latin: esmaralda/esmaraldus, a variant of Latin smaragdus, which originated in Ancient Greek: σμάραγδος (smaragdos; "green gem").[4]

Other Languages
العربية: زمرد
aragonés: Esmeralda
asturianu: Esmeralda
azərbaycanca: Zümrüd
বাংলা: পান্না
башҡортса: Зөбәржәт
беларуская: Ізумруд
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Смарагд
български: Смарагд
Boarisch: Smarogt
bosanski: Smaragd
brezhoneg: Emrodez
català: Maragda
čeština: Smaragd
Cymraeg: Emrallt
dansk: Smaragd
Deutsch: Smaragd
eesti: Smaragd
Ελληνικά: Σμαράγδι
español: Esmeralda
Esperanto: Smeraldo
euskara: Esmeralda
فارسی: زمرد
français: Émeraude
Gaeilge: Smaragaid
galego: Esmeralda
한국어: 에메랄드
հայերեն: Զմրուխտ
हिन्दी: पन्ना
hrvatski: Smaragd
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: এসমেরআলডা
Bahasa Indonesia: Zamrud
íslenska: Smaragður
italiano: Smeraldo
עברית: ברקת
Basa Jawa: Zamrud
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪಚ್ಚೆ
ქართული: ზურმუხტი
kaszëbsczi: Szmaragd
қазақша: Замартас
Kiswahili: Zumaridi
Latina: Smaragdus
latviešu: Smaragds
lietuvių: Smaragdas
magyar: Smaragd
македонски: Смарагд
മലയാളം: മരതകം
مصرى: زمرد
Bahasa Melayu: Zamrud
Nāhuatl: Quetzalitztli
Nederlands: Smaragd
日本語: エメラルド
norsk: Smaragd
norsk nynorsk: Smaragd
олык марий: Изумруд
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Zumrad
پنجابی: زمرد
پښتو: زمرد
polski: Szmaragd
português: Esmeralda
română: Smarald
Runa Simi: Q'umir umiña
русский: Изумруд
Scots: Emerant
Simple English: Emerald
سنڌي: زمرد
slovenčina: Smaragd
slovenščina: Smaragd
српски / srpski: Смарагд
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Smaragd
suomi: Smaragdi
svenska: Smaragd
தமிழ்: மரகதம்
తెలుగు: మరకతము
ไทย: มรกต
тоҷикӣ: Зумуррад
Türkçe: Zümrüt
українська: Смарагд
اردو: زمرد
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ياقۇت رەڭلىك
Tiếng Việt: Ngọc lục bảo
粵語: 呂宋綠
中文: 祖母綠
Kabɩyɛ: Emeroodi