Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II in March 2015.jpg
Elizabeth in 2015
Reign 6 February 1952 – present
Coronation 2 June 1953
Predecessor George VI
Heir apparent Charles, Prince of Wales
Prime Ministers See list
Born (1926-04-21) 21 April 1926 (age 91)
Mayfair, London, England, United Kingdom
Spouse Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (m. 1947)
Full name
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
House Windsor
Father George VI
Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Signature Elizabeth II's signature

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) [a] has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. She is also Head of the Commonwealth and queen of twelve countries that have become independent since her accession: Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. [b]

Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and she was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Andrew, Duke of York; and Edward, Earl of Wessex.

Elizabeth's many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. She has seen major constitutional changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, and the decolonisation of Africa. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee. She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the oldest and longest-serving current head of state.

Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages and the Windsor Castle fire in 1992 (her annus horribilis) and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales; however, support for the monarchy remains high, as does her personal popularity.

Early life

Elizabeth as a thoughtful-looking toddler with curly, fair hair
Princess Elizabeth aged three, April 1929

Elizabeth was born at 02:40 ( GMT) on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, the Duke of York (later King George VI), was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. [2] She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, [3] [c] and named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, and Mary after her paternal grandmother. [5] Called "Lilibet" by her close family, [6] based on what she called herself at first, [7] she was cherished by her grandfather George V, and during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. [8]

Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930. The two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford. [9] Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature and music. [10] Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. [11] The book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, and her attitude of responsibility. [12] Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." [13] Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". [14]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Elisabeth II.
Ænglisc: Elisabeþ II
azərbaycanca: II Elizabet
Bân-lâm-gú: Elizabeth 2-sè
башҡортса: Елизавета II
беларуская: Лізавета II
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лізавета II
भोजपुरी: एलिजाबेथ II
Bikol Central: Reyna Elizabeth II
Bislama: Elisabet II
български: Елизабет II
brezhoneg: Elesbed II
буряад: II Елизавета
čeština: Alžběta II.
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Reina Elizabeth, el aca-segundo
davvisámegiella: Elizabeth II
Deutsch: Elisabeth II.
français: Élisabeth II
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Queen Elizabeth II
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Elizabeth 2-sṳ
Հայերեն: Եղիսաբեթ II
hornjoserbsce: Hilžbjeta II.
hrvatski: Elizabeta II.
Ilokano: Isabel II
Interlingue: Elisabeth II
isiZulu: Elizabeth II
ქართული: ელისაბედ II
қазақша: II Елизавета
kernowek: Elisabeth II
Kreyòl ayisyen: Elizabeth II
Кыргызча: Елизавета II
لۊری شومالی: ئلیزابئت دویوم
Lëtzebuergesch: Elizabeth II.
lietuvių: Elžbieta II
Limburgs: Elizabeth II
македонски: Елизабета II
Malagasy: Elizabeth II
മലയാളം: എലിസബത്ത് II
მარგალური: ელისაბედ II
Bahasa Melayu: Elizabeth II
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Elizabeth 2-sié
монгол: II Элизабет
нохчийн: Элизабет II
Nordfriisk: Elisabeth II.
Norfuk / Pitkern: Queen Elizabeth II
Novial: Elisabeth II
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yelizaveta II
پنجابی: الزبتھ II
Papiamentu: Elizabet II
Tok Pisin: Elisabet II
Plattdüütsch: Elisabeth II. (Windsor)
polski: Elżbieta II
qırımtatarca: II Elizabet
Runa Simi: Elisabeth II
русский: Елизавета II
Gagana Samoa: Masiofo Elisapeta II
संस्कृतम्: एलिज़बेथ २
Simple English: Elizabeth II
slovenčina: Alžbeta II.
Soomaaliga: Elizabeth II
српски / srpski: Елизабета II
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Elizabeta II
svenska: Elizabeth II
Tagalog: Elizabeth II
Taqbaylit: Elizabeth II
татарча/tatarça: Елизавета II
తెలుగు: ఎలిజబెత్ II
Türkçe: II. Elizabeth
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Elidhabeth II
українська: Єлизавета II
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئېلىزابېت II
vepsän kel’: Elizavet Toine
Tiếng Việt: Elizabeth II
Winaray: Elizabeth II
Yorùbá: Elisabeti Kejì
žemaitėška: Elžbieta II