## Electrical conductor |

Part of a series of articles about |

In **conductor** is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an

In order for current to flow, it is not necessary for one charged particle to travel from the machine producing the current to that consuming it. Instead, the charged particle simply needs to nudge its neighbor a finite amount who will nudge its neighbor and on and on until a particle is nudged into the consumer, thus powering the machine. Essentially what is occurring is a long chain of momentum transfer between mobile charge carriers; the

As discussed above, electrons are the primary mover in metals; however, other devices such as the cationic

- resistance and conductance
- conductor materials
- wire size
- conductor ampacity
- isotropy
- see also
- references
- further reading
- external links

The resistance of a given conductor depends on the material it is made of, and on its dimensions. For a given material, the resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area.^{[1]} For example, a thick copper wire has lower resistance than an otherwise-identical thin copper wire. Also, for a given material, the resistance is proportional to the length; for example, a long copper wire has higher resistance than an otherwise-identical short copper wire. The resistance *R* and conductance *G* of a conductor of uniform cross section, therefore, can be computed as^{[1]}

where is the length of the conductor, measured in *A* is the cross-section area of the conductor measured in ^{−1}), and ρ (*specific electrical resistance*) of the material, measured in ohm-metres (Ω·m). The resistivity and conductivity are proportionality constants, and therefore depend only on the material the wire is made of, not the geometry of the wire. Resistivity and conductivity are

This formula is not exact: It assumes the

Another situation this formula is not exact for is with *geometrical* cross-section is different from the *effective* cross-section in which current actually flows, so the resistance is higher than expected. Similarly, if two conductors are near each other carrying AC current, their resistances increase due to the ^{[2]} or large power cables carrying more than a few hundred amperes.

Aside from the geometry of the wire, temperature also has a significant effect on the efficacy of conductors. Temperature affects conductors in two main ways, the first is that materials may expand under the application of heat. The amount that the material will expand is governed by the ^{−6}. An increase in temperature will also increase the number of phonons generated within the material. A

Other Languages

Afrikaans: Elektriese geleier

العربية: موصل كهربائي

asturianu: Conductor eléctricu

azərbaycanca: Keçirici materiallar

বাংলা: তড়িৎ পরিবাহী

беларуская: Электрычныя праваднікі

български: Проводник

bosanski: Električni provodnik

català: Conductor elèctric

čeština: Elektrický vodič

Cymraeg: Dargludydd trydanol

dansk: Elektrisk leder

eesti: Elektrijuht

Ελληνικά: Αγωγός

español: Conductor eléctrico

Esperanto: Konduktilo

euskara: Eroale elektriko

فارسی: رسانای الکتریکی

français: Conducteur (électricité)

Gaeilge: Seoltóir leictreach

한국어: 전기 전도체

हिन्दी: विद्युत चालक

hrvatski: Električni vodič

Bahasa Indonesia: Penghantar listrik

isiXhosa: Isixhobo sokuhamba kombane -

íslenska: Rafleiðari

italiano: Conduttore elettrico

ಕನ್ನಡ: ವಿದ್ಯುತ್ ವಾಹಕ

ქართული: გამტარი

қазақша: Сілтеуіш

Kreyòl ayisyen: Kondiktè

kurdî: Ragihbar

Latina: Conductrum

latviešu: Elektriskais vadītājs

lietuvių: Elektros laidininkas

magyar: Elektromos vezetés

македонски: Електричен спроводник

മലയാളം: വൈദ്യുത ചാലകം

मराठी: वाहक (उर्जा)

Bahasa Melayu: Pengalir elektrik

монгол: Цахилгаан дамжуулагч

မြန်မာဘာသာ: လျှပ်ကူးပစ္စည်း

Nederlands: Geleider

日本語: 電気伝導体

norsk: Elektrisk leder

norsk nynorsk: Elektrisk leiar

oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Elektr oʻtkazgichlar

ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਿਜਲਈ ਚਾਲਕ

پنجابی: الیکٹریکل کنڈیکٹر

Piemontèis: Condutor

polski: Przewodnik elektryczny

português: Condutor elétrico

Runa Simi: Pinchikilla pusaq

русский: Проводник (электричество)

Scots: Electrical conductor

Seeltersk: Laitere un Isolatore

shqip: Përcjellësit elektrik

Simple English: Electrical conductor

slovenčina: Elektrický vodič

slovenščina: Električni prevodnik

српски / srpski: Електрични проводник

srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Električni vodič

Basa Sunda: Konduktor listrik

suomi: Sähköjohde

svenska: Elektrisk ledare

Tagalog: Konduktor na elektrikal

தமிழ்: மின்கடத்தி

తెలుగు: విద్యుత్ వాహకం

ไทย: ตัวนำไฟฟ้า

Türkçe: Elektriksel iletken

українська: Провідник

اردو: مُوَصِّل

Tiếng Việt: Chất dẫn điện

中文: 導體