Electric car

Electric cars charging on street in Rome in 2016.

An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using electrical energy stored in rechargeable batteries. The first practical electric cars were produced in the 1880s. [1] [2] Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century, until advances in internal combustion engines, electric starters in particular, and mass production of cheaper gasoline vehicles led to a decline in the use of electric drive vehicles. In 1897, electric cars found their first commercial use in the USA. New York City taxis were electric, and they were manufactured by the Philadelphian Electric Carriage and Wagon company. During the 20th century, the main manufacturers of electric vehicles in the US were Anthony Electric, Baker, Columbia, Anderson, Edison, Riker, Milburn and others. Unlike gasoline-powered vehicles, the electric ones were quieter and did not require gear changes. [3]

Since 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing has occurred due to advances in batteries, concerns about increasing oil prices, and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. [4] [5] Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to promote the introduction and now adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles depending on battery size and their all-electric range.

Compared with cars with internal combustion (IC) engines, electric cars are quieter and have no tailpipe emissions. When recharged by low-emission electrical power sources, electric vehicles can reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to IC engines. Where oil is imported, use of electric vehicles can reduce imports.

Recharging can take a long time and in many places there is inadequate recharging infrastructure. Battery cost limits range and increases purchase cost over IC vehicles, but battery costs are decreasing. Drivers can also sometimes suffer from range anxiety- the fear that the batteries will be depleted before reaching their destination. [4] [5]

As of December 2015, there were over 30 models of highway legal all-electric passenger cars and utility vans available. Cumulative global sales of highway-capable light-duty pure electric vehicles passed one million units in total, globally, in September 2016. [6] [7]

Terminology

NASA's Lunar Roving Vehicles were battery-driven.

Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle (EV). The term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" generally refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity. Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States, [8] and as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe, [9] are plug-in electric-powered microcars or city cars with limitations in terms of weight, power and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads and city streets up to a certain posted speed limit, which varies by country.

While an electric car's power source is not explicitly an on-board battery, electric cars with motors powered by other energy sources are generally referred to by a different name: an electric car carrying solar panels to power it is a solar car, and an electric car powered by a gasoline generator is a form of hybrid car. Thus, an electric car that derives its power from an on-board battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle (BEV). Most often, the term "electric car" is used to refer to battery electric vehicles.[ citation needed]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Elektrik avtomobili
беларуская: Электрамабіль
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Электрамабіль
čeština: Elektromobil
Cymraeg: Car trydan
dansk: Elbil
Deutsch: Elektroauto
한국어: 전기자동차
Bahasa Indonesia: Mobil listrik
íslenska: Rafbíll
italiano: Auto elettrica
latviešu: Elektromobilis
lietuvių: Elektromobilis
Bahasa Melayu: Kereta elektrik
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လျှပ်စစ်ကား
Nederlands: Elektrische auto
日本語: 電気自動車
norsk: Elbil
norsk nynorsk: Elbil
slovenčina: Elektromobil
slovenščina: Električni avtomobil
svenska: Elbil
українська: Електромобіль
Tiếng Việt: Xe chạy điện
中文: 电动汽车