Egyptians

Egyptians
مَصريين
ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ
Total population
104.2 million (2017)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Egypt~94.8 million (2017 estimate)[1][2]
 Saudi Arabia2,900,000[3]
 Jordan1,600,000
 United States256,070[4]
 Libya~1,000,000 (2011)[5]
 United Arab Emirates750,000[3]
 Canada250,000[6]
 Italy560,000[3]
 Kuwait500,000[3]
 Sudan500,000[7]
 France365,000[3]
 Australia340,000[3]
 Qatar230,000[3]
 Germany77,000[3]
 United Kingdom62,000[3]
 Israel57,500[8]
 Oman56,000[7]
 Netherlands45,000[3]
 Lebanon40,000[7]
 South Africa40,000[7]
Languages
Egyptian Arabic
Sa'idi Arabic
Coptic
Religion
Related ethnic groups

Egyptians (Egyptian Arabic: مَصريين‎  IPA: [mɑsˤɾɪjˈjiːn]; Maṣreyyīn; Arabic: مِصريّون‎; Coptic: ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.

Egyptian identity is closely tied to geography. The population of Egypt is concentrated in the lower Nile Valley, the small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean and enclosed by desert both to the east and to the west. This unique geography has been the basis of the development of Egyptian society since antiquity.

The daily language of the Egyptians is the local variety of Arabic, known as Egyptian Arabic or Masri. Additionally, a sizable minority of Egyptians living in Upper Egypt speak Sa'idi Arabic. Egyptians are predominantly adherents of Sunni Islam with a Shia minority and a significant proportion who follow native Sufi orders.[9] A considerable percentage of Egyptians belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, whose liturgical language, Coptic, is the most recent stage of the indigenous Egyptian language and is still used in prayers along with Arabic.

Terminology

Egyptians receive or have received several names:

  • Egyptians, from Greek Αἰγύπτιοι, Aiguptioi, from Αἴγυπτος, Aiguptos "Egypt". The Greek name is derived from Late Egyptian Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hat-ka-Ptah (ḥwt-k3-ptḥ), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo provided a folk etymology according to which Αἴγυπτος had evolved as a compound from Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως Aegaeou huptiōs, meaning "below the Aegean". In English, the noun "Egyptians" appears in the 14th century, in Wycliff's Bible, as Egipcions.[citation needed]
  • Copts (قبط, qibṭ, qubṭ), also a derivative of the Greek word Αἰγύπτιος, Aiguptios ("Egyptian"), that appeared under Muslim rule to refer to indigenous population of Egypt and to separate them from the Arabs. Coptic was the language of the state, Church and people [10][11] but then got replaced by Arabic after the Muslim conquest[12][13], Islam became the dominant religion in Egypt due to mass conversions from Christianity to Islam mainly from the poor masses after being unable to regularly pay the Jizyah[14], the modern term then became exclusively associated with Egyptian Christianity and Coptic Christians who are members of the Coptic Orthodox Church or Coptic Catholic Church, though references to native Muslims as Copts are attested until the Mamluk period.[15]
  • Maṣreyyīn[16], the modern Egyptian name, which comes from the ancient Semitic name for Egypt and originally connoted "civilization" or "metropolis".[citation needed] Classical Arabic Miṣr (Egyptian Arabic Maṣr) is directly cognate with the Biblical Hebrew Mitsráyīm, meaning "the two straits", a reference to the predynastic separation of Upper and Lower Egypt. Edward William Lane writing in the 1820s, said that Egyptians commonly called themselves El-Maṣreyyīn 'the Egyptians', Ewlad Maṣr 'the Children of Egypt' and Ahl Maṣr 'the People of Egypt'. He added that the Turks "stigmatized" the Egyptians with the name Ahl-Far'ūn or the 'People of the Pharaoh'.[17]
  • 𓂋𓍿𓀂𓁐𓏥𓈖𓆎𓅓𓏏𓊖 / rmṯ n Km.t, the native Egyptian name of the people of the Nile Valley, literally 'People of Kemet' (i.e., Egypt). In antiquity, it was often shortened to simply Rmṯ or "the people".[citation needed] The name is vocalized as rem/en/kī/mi ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ in the (Bohairic) Coptic stage of the language, meaning "Egyptian" (ni/rem/en/kīmi ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ with the plural definite article, "the Egyptians").
Other Languages
العربية: مصريون
تۆرکجه: میصریلی‌لر
български: Египтяни
Esperanto: Egiptoj
euskara: Egiptoar
فارسی: مردم مصر
한국어: 이집트인
Hausa: Misirawa
հայերեն: Եգիպտացիներ
hrvatski: Egipćani
Bahasa Indonesia: Bangsa Mesir
עברית: מצרים (עם)
ქართული: ეგვიპტელები
latviešu: Ēģiptieši
მარგალური: ეგვიპტარეფი
مصرى: مصريين
română: Egipteni
русский: Египтяне
slovenščina: Egipčani
српски / srpski: Египћани
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Egipćani
Türkçe: Mısırlılar
українська: Єгипетські араби
Tiếng Việt: Người Ai Cập
中文: 埃及人