Arab Republic of Egypt

Anthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
"بلادي، بلادي، بلادي"
"My country, my country, my country"
EGY orthographic.svg
and largest city
30°2′N 31°13′E / 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033; 31.217
Official languagesArabic
National languageEgyptian Arabic[a]
See Religion in Egypt
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential
• President
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Mostafa Madbouly
Ali Abdel Aal
LegislatureHouse of Representatives
• Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt
c. 3150 BC
• Muhammad Ali dynasty inaugurated
9 July 1805[3]
28 February 1922
23 July 1952
• Republic declared
18 June 1953
18 January 2014
• Total
1,010,408[4] km2 (390,121 sq mi) (29th)
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
Increase 100,000,000 [5][6] (13th)
• 2017 census
• Density
100/km2 (259.0/sq mi) (83th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.391 trillion[8] (19th)
• Per capita
Increase $14,023[8] (94th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $302.256 billion[8] (40th)
• Per capita
Increase $3,047[8] (126th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 31.8[9]
medium · 51st
HDI (2018)Increase 0.700[10]
high · 116th
CurrencyEgyptian pound (E£) (EGP)
Time zoneUTC+2[c] (EET)
Driving sideright
Calling code+20
ISO 3166 codeEG
Internet TLD
  1. ^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language.[11] Egyptian Arabic is the spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
  2. ^ "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation".[12][13] Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.
  3. ^ See Daylight saving time in Egypt.

Egypt (t/ (About this soundlisten) EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصرMiṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصرMaṣr, Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government.[14] Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.

From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, and many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, and declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a semi-presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, which has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian.

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language.[15] With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide.[16] Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, and is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt overtook South Africa and became Africa's second largest economy (after Nigeria).[17][18] Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.


The English name "Egypt" is derived from the Ancient Greek "Aígyptos" ("Αἴγυπτος"), via Middle French "Egypte" and Latin "Aegyptus". It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as "a-ku-pi-ti-yo". The adjective "aigýpti-"/"aigýptios" was borrowed into Coptic as "gyptios", and from there into Arabic as "qubṭī", back formed into "قبط" ("qubṭ"), whence English "Copt". The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian (Amarna) Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name
(⟨ḥwt-kȝ-ptḥ⟩), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis.[19]

"Miṣr" (Arabic pronunciation: [mesˤɾ]; "مِصر") is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" (Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mɑsˤɾ]; مَصر) is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic.[20] The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם" ("Mitzráyim"). The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" ("miṣru")[21][22] related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier".[23]

The ancient Egyptian name of the country was
km.t, which means black land, likely referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, distinct from the deshret (⟨dšṛt⟩), or "red land" of the desert.[24][25] This name is commonly vocalised as Kemet, but was probably pronounced [kuːmat] in ancient Egyptian.[26] The name is realised as kēme and kēmə in the Coptic stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as Χημία (Khēmía).[27] Another name was ⟨tꜣ-mry⟩ "land of the riverbank".[28] The names of Upper and Lower Egypt were Ta-Sheme'aw (⟨tꜣ-šmꜥw⟩) "sedgeland" and Ta-Mehew (⟨tꜣ mḥw⟩) "northland", respectively.
Other Languages
Acèh: Meusé
адыгабзэ: Мысыр
Afrikaans: Egipte
Akan: Igyipt
Alemannisch: Ägypten
አማርኛ: ግብፅ
Ænglisc: Ægypt
Аҧсшәа: Мысра
العربية: مصر
aragonés: Echipto
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܨܪܝܢ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Եգիպտոս
arpetan: Èg·ipte
অসমীয়া: ইজিপ্ত
asturianu: Exiptu
Avañe'ẽ: Ehíto
авар: Египет
Aymar aru: Iqiptu
azərbaycanca: Misir
تۆرکجه: میصر
Bali: Mesir
bamanankan: Misra
বাংলা: মিশর
Banjar: Mesir
Bân-lâm-gú: Ai-ki̍p
башҡортса: Мысыр
беларуская: Егіпет
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Эгіпет
भोजपुरी: मिस्र
Bikol Central: Ehipto
български: Египет
Boarisch: Egyptn
བོད་ཡིག: ཨའི་ཅི།
bosanski: Egipat
brezhoneg: Egipt
буряад: Египет
català: Egipte
Cebuano: Ehipto
čeština: Egypt
Chamoru: Ehiptu
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Egipto
chiShona: Egypt
chiTumbuka: Egypt
Cymraeg: Yr Aifft
dansk: Egypten
davvisámegiella: Egypta
Deutsch: Ägypten
ދިވެހިބަސް: މިޞްރު
dolnoserbski: Egyptojska
डोटेली: इजिप्ट
eesti: Egiptus
Ελληνικά: Αίγυπτος
español: Egipto
Esperanto: Egiptio
estremeñu: Egitu
euskara: Egipto
eʋegbe: Egipte
فارسی: مصر
Fiji Hindi: Egypt
føroyskt: Egyptaland
français: Égypte
Frysk: Egypte
furlan: Egjit
Gaeilge: An Éigipt
Gaelg: Yn Egypt
Gagauz: Mısır
Gàidhlig: An Èipheit
galego: Exipto
ГӀалгӀай: Мисаре
贛語: 埃及
Gĩkũyũ: Egypt
ગુજરાતી: ઇજિપ્ત
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌰𐌹𐌲𐍅𐍀𐍄𐌰𐌿
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ईजिप्त
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Âi-khi̍p
한국어: 이집트
Hausa: Misra
Hawaiʻi: ‘Aikupika
հայերեն: Եգիպտոս
हिन्दी: मिस्र
hornjoserbsce: Egyptowska
hrvatski: Egipat
Ido: Egiptia
Igbo: Egypt
Ilokano: Ehipto
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মিশর
Bahasa Indonesia: Mesir
interlingua: Egypto
Interlingue: Egiptia
Ирон: Мысыр
isiZulu: IGibhithe
íslenska: Egyptaland
italiano: Egitto
עברית: מצרים
Jawa: Mesir
Kabɩyɛ: Egipiti
kalaallisut: Egypt
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಈಜಿಪ್ಟ್
Kapampangan: Ejiptu
ქართული: ეგვიპტე
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: مِسر
kaszëbsczi: Egipt
қазақша: Мысыр
kernowek: Ejyp
Kirundi: Misiri
Kiswahili: Misri
Kongo: Misiri
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ejip
kriyòl gwiyannen: Léjip
kurdî: Misir
Кыргызча: Египет
кырык мары: Египет
Ladino: Ayifto
лакку: Мисри
Latina: Aegyptus
latviešu: Ēģipte
Lëtzebuergesch: Egypten
лезги: Мисри
lietuvių: Egiptas
Ligure: Egitto
Limburgs: Egypte
lingála: Ejipte
Lingua Franca Nova: Misre
Livvinkarjala: Jegiptu
la .lojban.: misrygu'e
Luganda: Egypt
lumbaart: Egit
magyar: Egyiptom
मैथिली: मिस्र
македонски: Египет
Malagasy: Ejipta
മലയാളം: ഈജിപ്റ്റ്‌
Malti: Eġittu
मराठी: इजिप्त
მარგალური: ეგვიპტე
مصرى: مصر
مازِرونی: مصر
Bahasa Melayu: Mesir
Minangkabau: Masia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ăi-gĭk
мокшень: Египет
монгол: Египет
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီဂျစ်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Egipto
Dorerin Naoero: Idjipt
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Ijipta
Nederlands: Egypte (land)
Nedersaksies: Egypte (laand)
नेपाली: इजिप्ट
नेपाल भाषा: मिस्र
日本語: エジプト
Napulitano: Naggitto
нохчийн: Мисар
Nordfriisk: Egypten
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ejiipt
norsk: Egypt
norsk nynorsk: Egypt
Nouormand: Êgypte
Novial: Egiptia
occitan: Egipte
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇଜିପ୍ଟ
Oromoo: Ijiipti
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Misr
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਿਸਰ
पालि: ईजिप्ट
پنجابی: مصر
Papiamentu: Egipto
پښتو: مصر
Patois: Iijip
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អេស៊ីប
Picard: Édjipe
Piemontèis: Egit
Tok Pisin: Ijip
Plattdüütsch: Ägypten
polski: Egipt
Ποντιακά: Αίγυπτος
português: Egito
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mısır
qırımtatarca: Mısır
reo tahiti: ’Aifiti
română: Egipt
romani čhib: Mêsire
rumantsch: Egipta
Runa Simi: Ihiptu
русиньскый: Еґіпет
русский: Египет
саха тыла: Эгиипэт
Sakizaya: Egypt
Gagana Samoa: Aikupito
संस्कृतम्: ईजिप्तदेशः
Sängö: Kâmitâ
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱤᱥᱚᱨ
sardu: Egitu
Scots: Egyp
Seeltersk: Ägypten
Sesotho: Egepeta
Sesotho sa Leboa: Egypt
shqip: Egjipti
sicilianu: Eggittu
සිංහල: ඊජිප්තුව
Simple English: Egypt
سنڌي: مصر
SiSwati: IGibhithe
slovenčina: Egypt
slovenščina: Egipt
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Єгѷптъ
ślůnski: Egipt
Soomaaliga: Masar
کوردی: میسر
Sranantongo: Egiptakondre
српски / srpski: Египат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Egipat
Sunda: Mesir
suomi: Egypti
svenska: Egypten
Tagalog: Ehipto
தமிழ்: எகிப்து
Taqbaylit: Maṣer
tarandíne: Egitte
татарча/tatarça: Мисыр
తెలుగు: ఈజిప్టు
tetun: Ejitu
тоҷикӣ: Миср
Tsetsêhestâhese: Egypt
Türkçe: Mısır
Türkmençe: Müsür
Twi: Misrim
тыва дыл: Египет
удмурт: Египет
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Mesir
українська: Єгипет
اردو: مصر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مىسىر
Vahcuengh: Aehciz
vèneto: Egito
vepsän kel’: Egipt
Tiếng Việt: Ai Cập
Volapük: Lägüptän
Võro: Egüptüs
walon: Edjipe
文言: 密思兒
West-Vlams: Egypte
Winaray: Ehipto
Wolof: Isipt
吴语: 埃及
Xitsonga: Gibita
ייִדיש: עגיפטן
Yorùbá: Ẹ́gíptì
粵語: 埃及
Zazaki: Mısır
Zeêuws: Ehypte
žemaitėška: Egėpts
中文: 埃及