Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March

Edmund Mortimer
Earl of March
Earl of Ulster
Clare Priory, geograph.jpg
Clare Priory, Suffolk, burial place of Edmund Mortimer
Born(1391-11-06)6 November 1391
New Forest, Westmeath
Died18 January 1425(1425-01-18) (aged 33)
Trim Castle
BuriedClare Priory
Noble familyMortimer
Spouse(s)Anne Stafford
FatherRoger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
MotherEleanor Holland
Arms of Mortimer: Barry or and azure, on a chief of the first two pallets between two base esquires of the second over all an inescutcheon argent

Edmund de Mortimer, 5th Earl of March and 7th Earl of Ulster (6 November 1391 – 18 January 1425) was an English nobleman. A great-great-grandson of King Edward III of England, he was heir presumptive to King Richard II of England, his first cousin twice removed, when Richard II was deposed in favour of Henry IV. Edmund Mortimer's claim to the throne was the basis of rebellions and plots against Henry IV and his son Henry V, and was later taken up by the House of York in the Wars of the Roses, though Mortimer himself was an important and loyal vassal of Henry V and Henry VI. Edmund Mortimer was the last Earl of March of the Mortimer family.

Early life

Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, was born at New Forest, Westmeath, one of his family's Irish estates,[1] on 6 November 1391, the son of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, and Eleanor Holland. He had a younger brother, Roger (born 23 April 1393, died c. 1413), and two sisters: Anne, who married Richard, Earl of Cambridge, younger son of the Duke of York (executed 1415); and Eleanor, who married Sir Edward de Courtenay (d. 1418), and had no issue.[2]

Edmund Mortimer's mother was the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and Alice Fitzalan. Thomas Holland's mother, Joan of Kent, a granddaughter of Edward I, was the mother of Richard II by her second marriage; Alice Fitzalan was the daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, and his second wife, Eleanor, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, grandson of King Henry III.[3]

Edmund Mortimer was thus a descendant of Henry III and Edward I and a half-great-nephew of Richard II through his mother, and more importantly a descendant of King Edward III through his paternal grandmother Philippa of Clarence, only child of King Edward III's second surviving son, Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence.[4] Because King Richard II had no issue, Edmund's father, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, was heir presumptive during his lifetime, and at his death in Ireland on 20 July 1398 his claim to the throne passed to his eldest son, Edmund.[5] Thus in terms of male primogeniture Edmund was heir to the throne over and above the house of Lancaster, the children of Edward III's third son John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster.

However, on 30 September 1399, when Edmund Mortimer was not yet eight years of age, his fortunes changed entirely. Richard II was deposed by Henry Bolingbroke, the new Duke of Lancaster, who became King Henry IV and had his own son, the future King Henry V, recognized as heir apparent at his first Parliament. The King put the young Edmund and his brother Roger in the custody of Sir Hugh Waterton at Windsor and Berkhampstead castles, but they were treated honourably, and for part of the time brought up with the King's own children, John and Philippa.[6]