|Born||8 November [O.S. 29 October] 1656|
|Died||25 January 1742 [O.S. 14 January 1741] (aged 85)|
|Resting place||St. Margaret's, Lee, South London|
|Alma mater||The Queen's College, Oxford|
|Children||Edmond Halley (d. 1741)|
Margaret (d. 1713)
Richelle (d. 1748)
|Fields||Astronomy, geophysics, mathematics, meteorology, physics, cartography|
|Institutions||University of Oxford|
Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (/; 8 November [O.S. 29 October] 1656 – 25 January 1742 [O.S. 14 January 1741]) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. He was the second Astronomer Royal in Britain, succeeding John Flamsteed in 1720.
From an observatory he constructed on Saint Helena, Halley recorded a transit of Mercury across the Sun. He realised a similar transit of Venus could be used to determine the size of the Solar System. He also used his observations to expand contemporary star maps. He aided in observationally proving Isaac Newton's laws of motion, and funded the publication of Newton's influential Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.From his September 1682 observations, he used the laws of motion to compute the periodicity of Halley's Comet in his 1705 Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets. It was named after him upon its predicted return in 1758, which he did not live to see.
Beginning in 1698, he made sailing expeditions and made observations on the conditions of terrestrial magnetism. In 1718, he discovered the proper motion of the "fixed" stars.