Dùn Èideann City of Edinburgh Nicknames:
"Auld Reekie", "Edina", "Athens of the North"
Location within the United Kingdom
Coordinates: 55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55.953; -3.189 Scotland Council area City of Edinburgh Lieutenancy area Edinburgh Founded Prior to 7th century AD Burgh Charter 1125 City status 1889 Government • Type Unitary authority • Governing body The City of Edinburgh Council • Lord Provost of Edinburgh Frank Ross • MSPs • MPs Area • and City council area 264 km 2 (102 sq mi) • Metro 225 km 2 (87 sq mi) Elevation 47 m (154 ft) Population
(2012 and 2016)
• and City council area 464,990 – Locality 513,210 –  Council  • Density 1,828/km 2 (4,730/sq mi) • Metro 794,040  • Language(s) , English Scots Demonym(s) Edinburgher   Time zone ( UTC±0 ) GMT • Summer ( ) DST ( UTC+1 ) BST Postcode areas Area code(s) 0131 ISO 3166-2 GB-EDH ONS code S12000036 NT275735 3 NUTS UKM25 Primary Airport Edinburgh Airport GDP 32.5 billion US$  GDP per capita US$ 58,437  Website www .edinburgh .gov .uk UNESCO World Heritage Site Official name Old and New Towns of Edinburgh 728 Inscription 1995 (19th ) Session Edinburgh ( / (; ) listen    : Scottish Gaelic Dùn Èideann ; [ˈt̪uːn ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ] : Scots Edinburgh) is the of capital city and one of its 32 Scotland . Historically part of the county of council areas (or Edinburghshire), it is located in Midlothian on the Lothian 's southern shore. Firth of Forth
Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the
, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament . The city's supreme courts of Scotland is the Palace of Holyroodhouse of the official residence in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, monarch , literature, philosophy, the sciences and engineering. It is the second largest financial centre in the Scots law (after United Kingdom ) London and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination (again, after London), attracting over one million overseas visitors each year.  
Edinburgh is Scotland's
and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The official population estimates are 464,990 (2012) for the second most populous city of Edinburgh (Edinburgh pre 1975 regionalisation plus Locality and Currie ), Balerno 513,210 (2017) for the City of Edinburgh,  and 1,339,380 (2014) for the  . city region  Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising  , Edinburgh, East Lothian , Midlothian, Fife and Scottish Borders . West Lothian 
The city is the annual venue of the
. It is home to national institutions such as the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland , the National Museum of Scotland and the National Library of Scotland . The Scottish National Gallery , founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the University of Edinburgh for 2019. QS World University Rankings The city is also famous for the  and the Edinburgh International Festival , the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Fringe , the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of Edinburgh Castle , St. Giles and the Greyfriars , and the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Canongate and Old Town together are listed as a New Town UNESCO , World Heritage site which has been managed by  since 1999. Edinburgh World Heritage
"Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from
, the name for this region in Eidyn , the Cumbric Brittonic language formerly spoken there. The name's meaning is unknown. Celtic The district of Eidyn centred on the stronghold Din Eidyn, the  or dun of Eidyn. hillfort This stronghold is believed to have been located at  , now the site of Castle Rock . Eidyn was conquered by the Edinburgh Castle of Angles in the 7th century and later by the Scots in the 10th century. Bernicia As the language shifted to  , and subsequently to modern English and Old English , The Brittonic Scots din in Din Eidyn was replaced by , producing burh Edinburgh. Similarly, din became dùn in , producing Scottish Gaelic Dùn Èideann.