Edinburgh

Edinburgh

Dùn Èideann
City of Edinburgh
Clockwise from top-left: View from Calton Hill, Old College, Old Town from Princes Street, Edinburgh Castle, Princes Street from Calton Hill
Clockwise from top-left: View from Calton Hill, Old College, Old Town from Princes Street, Edinburgh Castle, Princes Street from Calton Hill
Flag of Edinburgh
Flag
Coat of arms of Edinburgh
Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
"Auld Reekie", "Edina", "Athens of the North"
Edinburgh is located in Scotland
Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Location of Edinburgh in Scotland
Edinburgh is located in the United Kingdom
Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh (the United Kingdom)
Edinburgh is located in Europe
Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh (Europe)
Coordinates: 55°57′N 3°12′W / 55°57′N 3°12′W / 55.950; -3.200 Scotland
Council areaCity of Edinburgh
Lieutenancy areaEdinburgh
FoundedPrior to 7th century AD
Burgh Charter1125
City status1889
Government
 • TypeUnitary authority
 • Governing bodyThe City of Edinburgh Council
 • Lord Provost of EdinburghFrank Ross
 • MSPs
 • MPs
Area
 • City and council area264 km2 (102 sq mi)
 • Metro
225 km2 (87 sq mi)
Elevation47 m (154 ft)
Population
(2012 and 2016)
 • City and council area464,990 – Locality [1] 513,210 – Council[2]
 • Density1,828/km2 (4,730/sq mi)
 • Metro
794,040[3]
 • Language(s)
English, Scots
Time zoneUTC±0 (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Postcode areas
Area code(s)0131
ISO 3166-2GB-EDH
ONS codeS12000036
NT275735
NUTS 3UKM25
Primary AirportEdinburgh Airport
GDPUS$ 32.5 billion[5]
GDP per capitaUS$ 58,437[5]
Websitewww.edinburgh.gov.uk
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameOld and New Towns of Edinburgh
728
Inscription1995 (19th Session)

Edinburgh (ə/ (About this soundlisten);[6][7][8] Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann [ˈt̪uːn ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ]; Scots: Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (or Edinburghshire), it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.

Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland. The city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, the sciences and engineering. It is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom (after London)[9] and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination (likewise after London), attracting over one million overseas visitors each year.[10]

Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The official population estimates are 464,990 (2012) for the Locality of Edinburgh (Edinburgh pre 1975 regionalisation plus Currie and Balerno),[1] 513,210 (2017) for the City of Edinburgh,[2] and 1,339,380 (2014) for the city region.[2][11] Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Edinburgh, Fife, Midlothian, Scottish Borders and West Lothian.[12]

The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. It is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019.[13] The city is also famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site,[14] which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999.

Etymology

"Edin", the root of the city's name, is most likely of Brittonic Celtic origin, from the Cumbric language or a variation of it that would have been spoken by the earliest known people of the area, an Iron Age tribe known to the Romans as the Votadini, and latterly in sub-Roman history as the Gododdin. It appears to derive from the place name Eidyn mentioned in the Old Welsh epic poem Y Gododdin.[15][16][17]

The poem names Din Eidyn as a hill fort (Din meaning "dun") in the territory of the Gododdin.[18] The change in nomenclature, from Din Eidyn to Edinburgh, reflects changes in the local language from Cumbric to Old English, the Germanic language of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia that permeated the area from the mid-7th century and is regarded as the ancestor of modern Scots. The Celtic element din was dropped and replaced by the Old English burh.[19]

In modern Gaelic, the city is called Dùn Èideann (often rendered Dunedin by English-speakers).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Edinburg
አማርኛ: ኤዲንቦሮ
Ænglisc: Edinburg
العربية: إدنبرة
aragonés: Edimburgo
armãneashti: Edinburgh
asturianu: Edimburgu
Avañe'ẽ: Endimbúgo
azərbaycanca: Edinburq
تۆرکجه: ادینبورق
বাংলা: এডিনবরা
Bân-lâm-gú: Edinburgh
беларуская: Эдынбург
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Эдынбург
भोजपुरी: एडिनबर्ग
български: Единбург
Boarisch: Edinburg
bosanski: Edinburgh
brezhoneg: Dinedin
català: Edimburg
Чӑвашла: Эдинбург
čeština: Edinburgh
chiShona: Edinburgh
Cymraeg: Caeredin
dansk: Edinburgh
Deutsch: Edinburgh
dolnoserbski: Edinburgh
eesti: Edinburgh
Ελληνικά: Εδιμβούργο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Edinbûrg
español: Edimburgo
Esperanto: Edinburgo
estremeñu: Edimburgu
euskara: Edinburgh
فارسی: ادینبرا
føroyskt: Edinburgh
français: Édimbourg
Frysk: Edinburch
furlan: Edinburc
Gaeilge: Dún Éideann
Gaelg: Doon Edin
Gàidhlig: Dùn Èideann
galego: Edimburgo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Oi-tên-páu
한국어: 에든버러
հայերեն: Էդինբուրգ
हिन्दी: एडिनबर्ग
hornjoserbsce: Edinburgh
hrvatski: Edinburgh
Bahasa Indonesia: Edinburgh
Interlingue: Edinburgh
íslenska: Edinborg
italiano: Edimburgo
עברית: אדינבורו
ქართული: ედინბურგი
қазақша: Эдинбург
kernowek: Karedin
Kiswahili: Edinburgh
Kreyòl ayisyen: Edinbo
kurdî: Edinburgh
Ladino: Edimburgo
Latina: Edinburgum
latviešu: Edinburga
Lëtzebuergesch: Edinburgh
lietuvių: Edinburgas
Lingua Franca Nova: Edinburgh
lumbaart: Edimbùrgh
magyar: Edinburgh
македонски: Единбург
മലയാളം: എഡിൻബറോ
मराठी: एडिनबरा
მარგალური: ედინბურგი
مصرى: ادنبره
مازِرونی: ادینبورگ
Bahasa Melayu: Edinburgh
монгол: Эдинбург
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အက်ဒင်ဗာရာမြို့
Nederlands: Edinburgh
Nedersaksies: Edinburgh
नेपाल भाषा: एदिनबरा
нохчийн: Эдинбург
norsk: Edinburgh
norsk nynorsk: Edinburgh
occitan: Edimborg
олык марий: Эдинбург
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Edinburg
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਐਡਿਨਬਰਾ
پنجابی: ایڈنبرا
Papiamentu: Edinburgh
Piemontèis: Edimborgh
polski: Edynburg
português: Edimburgo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Edinburg
română: Edinburgh
Runa Simi: Edinburgh
русский: Эдинбург
sardu: Edinburgh
Scots: Edinburgh
shqip: Edinburg
sicilianu: Edimburgu
Simple English: Edinburgh
سنڌي: ايڊنبرگ
slovenčina: Edinburgh
slovenščina: Edinburg
ślůnski: Edinburgh
کوردی: ئێدینبەرە
српски / srpski: Единбург
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Edinburgh
suomi: Edinburgh
svenska: Edinburgh
Tagalog: Edinburgh
தமிழ்: எடின்பரோ
татарча/tatarça: Эдинбург
Türkçe: Edinburgh
удмурт: Эдинбург
українська: Единбург
اردو: ایڈنبرگ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Idinburg
vepsän kel’: Edinburg
Tiếng Việt: Edinburgh
Volapük: Edinburgh
Võro: Edinburgh
Winaray: Edinburgh
吴语: 爱丁堡
ייִדיש: עדינבורג
粵語: 愛丁堡
Zazaki: Edinburgh
žemaitėška: Edėnborgs
中文: 爱丁堡