Eastern Arabic numerals

Eastern Arabic numerals on a clock in the Cairo Metro.
Clocks in the Ottoman Empire tended to use Eastern Arabic numerals.

The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Arabic–Hindu numerals, Arabic Eastern numerals and Indo–Persian numerals) are the symbols ( ० ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶ ۷ ۸ ۹) used to represent the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in the countries of the Mashriq (the east of the Arab world), the Arabian Peninsula, and its variant in other countries that use the Perso-Arabic script in the Iranian plateau and Asia.


The numeral system originates from an ancient Indian numeral system, which was re-introduced in the book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written by the medieval-era Iranian mathematician and engineer Khwarazmi,[1][better source needed] whose name was Latinized as Algoritmi.[note 1]