East Jerusalem

Map of East Jerusalem. The Arab areas are coloured green while the Jewish areas are blue.

East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem (Arabic: القدس الشرقية‎; Hebrew: מזרח ירושלים‎) is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War. It includes Jerusalem's Old City and some of the holiest sites of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, such as the Temple Mount, Western Wall, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Dome of the Rock and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, as well as a number of adjacent neighbourhoods. Israeli and Palestinian definitions of it differ;[1] the Palestinian official position is based on the 1949 Armistice Agreements, while the Israeli position is mainly based on the current municipality boundaries of Jerusalem, which resulted from a series of administrative enlargements decided by Israeli municipal authorities since the June 1967 Six-Day War. Despite its name, East Jerusalem includes neighborhoods to the north, east and south of the Old City, and in the wider definition of the term even on all these sides of West Jerusalem. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this.

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Jerusalem was contested between Jordan and Israel, and on the cessation of hostilities, the two countries secretly negotiated a division of the city, with the eastern sector coming under Jordanian rule. This arrangement was formalized in the Rhodes Agreement in March 1949.[2][3] A week after David Ben-Gurion presented his party's assertion that "Jewish Jerusalem is an organic, inseparable part of the State of Israel" in December 1949,[4] Jordan annexed East Jerusalem.[5] These decisions were confirmed respectively in the Knesset in January 1950 and the Jordanian Parliament in April 1950.[6]

On being occupied by Israel after the 1967 Six-Day War, East Jerusalem, with expanded borders, came under direct Israeli rule.[7] East Jerusalem had been occupied by Israel in June 1967. On 27–28 June 1967, East Jerusalem was integrated into Jerusalem by extension of its municipal borders and was placed under the law, jurisdiction and administration of the State of Israel.[8][9] In a unanimous General Assembly resolution, the UN declared the measures trying to change the status of the city invalid.[10] Jerusalem was effectively annexed by Israel in 1980, an act internationally condemned.[by whom?]

In the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)'s Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988, Jerusalem is stated to be the capital of the State of Palestine. In 2000, the Palestinian Authority passed a law proclaiming Jerusalem as such, and in 2002, this law was ratified by then chairman Yasser Arafat,[11][12] although Israel does not allow Palestinian government offices in East Jerusalem. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) recognised East Jerusalem as capital of the State of Palestine on 13 December 2017.[13]

Political term

East Jerusalem is a term heavy with political implications. The term Arab Jerusalem is used by Arabs in official English language documents, emphasizing the Arabic speaking Palestinian population and distinguishing it from the Hebrew speaking parts of the city. Israelis call the Arab populated part of the city East Jerusalem because of its location in the eastern part of the single larger Jerusalem city unit.[14]

The term East Jerusalem is ambiguous and may be used to refer to either of the following:

  • From 1948 to 1967 it referred to the 6.4 km2 (2.5 sq mi) Jordanian-ruled part of the city, mainly the predominantly Arab business district, the Old City and surrounding neighborhoods; counterpart of West Jerusalem, which referred to the Israeli part of the city.
  • It may be applied to the area that Israel annexed and included in municipal Jerusalem following its occupation by Israel from Jordan in 1967, which lies north, east and south of the former East Jerusalem. This area includes an additional approximate 64 km2 (25 sq mi) of the West Bank, including territory which previously included 28 villages and areas of the Bethlehem and Beit Jala municipalities under Jordanian rule.[15][16]
Other Languages
asturianu: Xerusalén Este
azərbaycanca: Şərqi Qüds
беларуская: Усходні Іерусалім
català: Jerusalem Est
Deutsch: Ostjerusalem
español: Jerusalén Este
français: Jérusalem-Est
한국어: 동예루살렘
Bahasa Indonesia: Yerusalem Timur
italiano: Gerusalemme Est
Basa Jawa: Yerusalem Wétan
kalaallisut: Østjerusalem
македонски: Источен Ерусалим
Bahasa Melayu: Baitulmuqaddis Timur
Nederlands: Oost-Jeruzalem
norsk nynorsk: Aust-Jerusalem
Türkçe: Doğu Kudüs
українська: Східний Єрусалим
Tiếng Việt: Đông Jerusalem