East Jerusalem

Map of East Jerusalem. The Arab areas are coloured green while the Jewish areas are blue.

East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem ( Arabic: القدس الشرقية‎‎, Hebrew: מזרח ירושלים‎‎) is the sector of Jerusalem that was not part of Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–1949 Arab–Israeli War. Israeli and Palestinian definitions of it differ; [1] the Palestinian official position is based on the 1949 Armistice Agreements, while the Israeli position is mainly based on the current municipality boundaries of Jerusalem, which resulted from a series of administrative enlargements decided by Israeli municipal authorities since the June 1967 Six-Day War. Despite its name, East Jerusalem includes neighborhoods to the north, east and south of the Old City, and in the wider definition of the term even on all these sides of West Jerusalem.

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Jerusalem was contested between Jordan and Israel, and on the cessation of hostilities, the two countries secretly negotiated a division of the city, with the eastern sector coming under Jordanian rule. This arrangement was formalized in the Rhodes Agreement in March 1949. [2] [3] A week after David Ben-Gurion presented his party's assertion that "Jewish Jerusalem is an organic, inseparable part of the State of Israel" in December 1949, [4] Jordan annexed East Jerusalem. [5] These decisions were confirmed respectively in the Knesset in January 1950 and the Jordanian Parliament in April 1950. [6]

On being captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, East Jerusalem, with expanded borders, came under Israeli rule. [7] It includes Jerusalem's Old City and some of the holiest sites of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, such as the Temple Mount, Western Wall, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Dome of the Rock and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

In the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)'s Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988, Jerusalem is stated to be the capital of the State of Palestine. In 2000, the Palestinian Authority passed a law proclaiming Jerusalem as such, and in 2002, this law was ratified by then chairman Yasser Arafat, [8] [9] although Israel does not allow Palestinian government offices in East Jerusalem.

East Jerusalem has been occupied by Israel since 1967 and was effectively annexed by Israel in 1980, an act internationally condemned. On 27–28 June 1967, East Jerusalem was integrated into Jerusalem by extension of its municipal borders and was placed under the law, jurisdiction and administration of the State of Israel. [10] [11] In a unanimous General Assembly resolution, the UN declared the measures trying to change the status of the city invalid. [12]

1948 Arab–Israeli War aftermath

Following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Jerusalem was divided into two parts. The western portion, populated primarily by Jews, came under Israeli rule, while the eastern portion, populated mainly by Muslim and Christian Palestinians, came under Jordanian rule. Arabs living in such western Jerusalem neighbourhoods as Katamon or Malha either fled or were in some cases forced out; the same fate befell Jews in the eastern areas, including the Old City and Silwan. The only eastern area of the city that remained in Israeli hands throughout the 19 years of Jordanian rule was Mount Scopus, where the Hebrew University is located, which formed an enclave during that period.

Following the 1967 Six-Day War, the eastern part of Jerusalem came under Israeli rule, along with the entire West Bank. Shortly after the Israeli takeover, East Jerusalem was annexed to West Jerusalem, together with several neighboring West Bank villages. In November 1967, United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 was passed, calling for Israel to withdraw "from territories occupied in the recent conflict" in exchange for peace treaties. In 1980, the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Law, which declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel", which is commonly called an act of annexation, though no such formal measure was even taken. [10] [13] This declaration was determined to be "null and void" by United Nations Security Council Resolution 478.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Şərqi Yerusəlim
беларуская: Усходні Іерусалім
català: Jerusalem Est
Deutsch: Ostjerusalem
español: Jerusalén Este
français: Jérusalem-Est
한국어: 동예루살렘
Bahasa Indonesia: Yerusalem Timur
italiano: Gerusalemme Est
Basa Jawa: Yerusalem Wétan
kalaallisut: Østjerusalem
македонски: Источен Ерусалим
Bahasa Melayu: Baitulmuqaddis Timur
Nederlands: Oost-Jeruzalem
norsk nynorsk: Aust-Jerusalem
Türkçe: Doğu Kudüs
українська: Східний Єрусалим
Tiếng Việt: Đông Jerusalem